Minna no Nihongo Lesson 49 will introduce you to 44 new words and 6 new grammar structures of Japanese
Vocabulary and grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 49
- Part 1: Vocabulary
- Part 2: Grammar
Part 1: Vocabulary
Listed below are 44 new words that appear in lesson 49. Let’s review these words before learning grammar.
|1||つとめます[かいしゃに～]||勤めます[会社に～]||work (for a company)|
|2||やすみます||休みます||go to bed, sleep|
|3||かけます[いすに～]||掛けます||sit on (a chair)|
|4||すごします||過ごします||spend (time), pass (time)|
|5||よります[ぎんこうに～]||寄ります[銀行に～]||drop into (a bank)|
|6||いらっしゃいます||be, go, come (respectful equivalent of います, いきますandきます)|
|7||めしあがります||召し上がります||eat, drink (respectful equivalent of たべますand のみます)|
|8||おっしゃいます||say (respectful equivalent of いいます)|
|9||なさいます||do (respectful equivalent of します)|
|10||ごらんになります||ご覧になります||see, look at (respectful equivalent of みます)|
|11||ごぞんじです||ご存じです||know (respectful equivalent of しっています)|
|12||あいさつ[～をします]||greeting, address (greet, give an address)|
|14||りょかん||旅館||Japanese-style hotel or inn|
|15||かいじょう||会場||meeting place, hall|
|18||～さま||～様||(respectful equivalent of ～さん)|
|19||かえりに||帰りに||on the way back|
|20||たまに||once in a while|
|21||ちょっとも||not at all (used with negatives)|
|22||えんりょなく||遠慮なく||without reserve, without hesitation|
|23||～ねん～くみ||～年～組||class ~ of ~ th grade|
|24||では||well, then (polite equivalent of じゃ)|
|25||だします[ねつを～]||出します[熱を～]||run (a fever)|
|26||よろしくおつたえください||よろしくお伝えください||Give my best regards / Please say hello|
|27||しつれいいたします||失礼いたします||Good-bye (humble equivalent ofしつれいします )|
|28||ひまわりしょうがっこう||ひまわり小学校||fictitious elementary school|
|30||おおくの～||多くの～||many ~, much ~|
|31||さくひん||作品||work (of art, etc.)|
|32||じゅしょうします||受賞します||be awarded a prize|
|35||～でいらっしゃいます||be (respectful equivalent of です)|
|36||ちょうなん||長男||one’s eldest son|
|38||おもちです||お持ちです||have (equivalent way of saying もっています)|
|41||それでは||well, so (indicating an end or beginning)|
|42||おおえけんざぶろう||大江健三郎||Japanese novelist (1935 – )|
|44||ノーベルぶんがくしょう||ノーベル文学賞||Nobel Prize for literature|
Part 2: Grammar
敬語 (honorific expressions)
You learnけいご in Lesson 49 and 50, けいごare expressions used to show the speaker’s respect for the listener or the person being referred to. The speaker is expected to show respect depending on his/her relationship with the listener or the person being referred to. There are the following three factors that should be considered in deciding the use of けいご: (1) When the speaker is junior or lower in social status, he/she uses けいごto show respect to the person senior or higher in social status. (2) When the speaker does not have a close acquaintanceship with the listener, as is typical when the speaker first meets the listener, he/she uses けいごto show respect to the listener. (3) The うち – そとrelationship should be also be taken into consideration with regard to the use of けいご. The speaker’s group such as his/her family and company, etc., are considered as うち, and other groups are considered as そと. When the speaker talks about うちのひと (an insider) toそとのひと (an outsider), the insider is treated like the speaker himself/herself. Therefore, even if the insider is senior or higher in status, the speaker cannot use けいごin the way that shows respect to the insider.
Types of 敬語
けいごare classified into three types: そんけいご (respectful expressions), けんじょうご(humble expressions) and ていねいご (polite expressions). Lesson 49 deals with そんけいご.
尊敬語 (respectful expressions)
そんけいごare expressions used to describe the listener or the person referred to, as well as things connected with him/her and his/her actions.
(1) Respectful verbs
The same verbs used in the passive are used as respectful verb. They are Group II verbs.
Mr. Nakamura is coming at seven.
Have you given up drinking?
(2) おVます-form になります
This pattern is considered politer than the respectful verbs mentioned above. Verbs whose ます-form consist of one mora (みます, ねます, etc.) and Group III verbs cannot be used in this pattern. As for the verbs which have special equivalent (see (3) below), note that the special equivalents rather than this pattern are used.
The president has already left for home.
(3) Special respectful words
Some verbs have special respectful equivalents. They are considered to show the same level of respect as (2) above.
Professor Watt is in the office.
Please help yourselves.
[Note] いらっしゃいます, なさいます, くださいますand おっしゃいますare Group I verbs, but except for ます-form, they change their form in the ら-row when they conjugate.
Does professor Watt play tennis?
No, I don’t think so.
(4) おVます-form ください
This is the respectful way of instructing or inviting someone to do something.
Please enter from over there.
[Note] The special words you learned in (3) above cannot be used in this pattern. The exceptions are めしあがりますand ごらんになります, which are changed to おめしあがりください (Please help yourself) and ごらんください (Please have a look at it) respectively.
2) Nouns, adjectives and adverbs
In addition to verbs, some nouns, adjectives and adverbs can be turned intoそんけいご by attaching おorご to the front of the word. The choice betweenお andご depends on the word. Basically お is attached to words of Japanese origin, whileご is attached to words of Chinese origin.
Examples of words to which おis attached:
Examples of words to whichご is attached:
敬語 and style of sentence
A sentence can end with a plain form of けいご , which makes the sentence a plain style sentence. This kind of sentence appears on occasions such as when the speaker is talking with a close friend about a person to whom the speaker wishes to show respect.
What time will the department manager come?
Uniform level of 敬語 in a sentence
In honorific expressions, replacing some of the words in a sentence with けいごdoes not suffice. It is necessary to keep a uniform level of けいごthroughout the entire sentence.
The department manager’s wife will go golfing together with him.
In (*), おくさまand ごいっしょにare used instead ofおくさん and いっしょにin order to be consistent with the respectful verb いかれます.
You change Vて-form to Vます-form ましてwhen you want to be very polite. In a sentence withけいご, ～ましてis often used for consistency.
Hans became feverish last night and still has a fever this morning.
The above is all knowledge about Vocabulary and Grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 49. To see other lessons, please click here.