Minna no Nihongo lesson 48 – All vocabulary and grammar with explanation

Minna no Nihongo Lesson 48 will introduce you to 32 new words and 4 new grammar structures of Japanese

Vocabulary and grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 48

  • Part 1: Vocabulary
  • Part 2: Grammar

Part 1: Vocabulary

Listed below are 32 new words that appear in lesson 48. Let’s review these words before learning grammar.

NO WORD KANJI MEANING
1 おろします 降ろします,下ろします put down, lower
2 とどけます 届けます deliver, report
3 せわをします 世話をします take care of  ~
4 いや[な] 嫌[な] unwilling, reluctant
5 きびしい 厳しい strict, hard
6 じゅく cram school
7 スケジュール schedule
8 せいと 生徒 pupil
9 もの person (referring to one’s relatives or subordinates)
10 にゅうかん 入管 Immigration Bureau
11 さいにゅうこくビザ 再入国ビザ re-entry visa
12 じゆうに 自由に freely
13 ~かん ~間 for ~ (referring to duration)
14 いいことですね That’s good
15 おいそがしいですか お忙しいですか Are you busy? (used when talking to someone senior or older)
16 ひさしぶり 久しぶり after a long time
17 えいぎょう 営業 business, sales
18 これまでに by that time
19 かまいません It’s all right / It doesn’t matter
20 たのしみます 楽しみます enjoy yourself
21 もともと originally
22 ~せいき ~世紀 ~ th century
23 かわりをします 代わりをします be a substitute, be a replacement
24 スピード speed
25 きょうそうします 競走します race
26 サーカス circus
27 げい performance, trick
28 うつくしい 美しい beautiful
29 すがた 姿 figure, appearance
30 こころ heart, mind
31 とらえます catch
32 ~にとって for ~

 

Part 2: Grammar

  1. Causative verbs

How to make causative verbs

Causative verbs

polite form

plain form

I いきます いかせます いかせる
II たべます たべさせます たべさせる
III きます

します

こさせます

させます

こさせる

させる

 

All causative verbs are Group II verbs; they conjugate into the dictionary form, ない-form, て-form, etc.

e.g.  いかせる、いかせ(ない)、いかせて

  1. Causative verb sentences

There are two types of causative sentences: those which indicate the subject of an action with を, and those which indicates it withに. When the verb is intransitive, as in 1) below, をis used, while when the verb is transitive, as in 2), にis used irrespective of whether the object of the verb is stated or not.

1) N (person) をV (intransitive) causative

make/let a person V (intransitive verb)

部長は加藤さんを大阪へ出張させます。(*)

The department manager makes Mr. Kato go to Osaka on business.

わたしは娘を自由に遊ばせました。(**)

I let my daughter play freely.

[Note] When an intransitive verb with “N (place) を“ is used in the sentence, the subject of the action is indicated with に, as shown in (x), but without a phrase with を, the subject of the action is indicated with を, as shown in (y).

わたしは子どもに道の右側を歩かせます。(x)

I make my child walk on the right side of the road.

わたしは子どもを歩かせます。(y)

I make my child walk.

2) N (person) に Nを V (transitive) causative

make/let a person V (transitive verb)

朝は忙しいですから、娘に朝ごはんの準備を手伝わせます。(i)

I am busy in the morning, so I  make my daughter help prepare breakfast.

先生は生徒に自由に意見を言わせました。(ii)

The teacher let her students freely voice their opinion.

  1. Usage of causative

Causative verbs indicate compulsion or permission. A causative sentence is used when the relationship between a senior person and a junior person is very clear (e.g., a parent and child, an elder brother and younger brother, a superior and subordinates, etc.) and the senior person forces the junior person to do a certain act, or allows him to do something. (*) and (i) are examples of compulsion and (**) and (ii) are those of permission. But when the speaker tells a person from outside his own group that he will make someone from within his group do something, as seen in the example below, the causative sentence is used regardless of their status.

駅に着いたら、お電話をください。

係の者を迎えに行かせますから。

わかりました。

When you arrive at the station, please call me.

I will send a member of my staff to the station to pick you up.

Thank you.

[Note 1] When a junior person has a senior person do a certain action and the senior versus junior relationship between them is obvious, Vて-form いただきますis used. If the two are equal or the relationship is delicate in terms of which one is senior, Vて-formもらいます is used instead.

わたしは部長に説明していただきました。

I had the department manager explain it to me.

わたしは友達に説明してもらいました。

I had my friend explain it to me.

[Note 2] As shown above, a causative verb usually cannot be used to describe a junior person having a senior person do something. However, as can be seen below, there is an exception when verbs denoting emotion such as あんしんする, しんぱいする, がっかりする, よろこぶ (be glad), かなしむ (feel sad), おこる (get angry), etc., are used.

子どものとき、体が弱くて、母を心配させました。

When I was a child, my poor health worried my mother.

  1. V causative て-form いただけませんか

Would you please let me do …?

In Lesson 26 you learned Vて-formいただけませんか, which is used to request someone to do something. V causative て-form いただけませんか, on the other hand, is used to seek permission.

コピー機の使い方を教えていただけませんか。

Would you please tell me how to use photocopier?

友達の結婚式があるので、早退させていただけませんか。

As I’m going to attend my friend’s wedding, would you please let me leave earlier?

The above is all knowledge about Vocabulary and Grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 48. To see other lessons, please click here.

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