Minna no Nihongo lesson 45 – All vocabulary and grammar with explanation

Minna no Nihongo Lesson 45 will introduce you to 34 new words and 2 new grammar structures of Japanese

Vocabulary and grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 45

  • Part 1: Vocabulary
  • Part 2: Grammar

Part 1: Vocabulary

Listed below are 34 new words that appear in lesson 45. Let’s review these words before learning grammar.

NO WORD KANJI MEANING
1 あやまります 謝ります apologize
2 あいます[じこに~] [事故~] encounter (an accident)
3 しんじます 信じます believe, trust
4 よういします 用意します prepare
5 キャンセルします cancel
6 うまくいきます go well
7 ほしょうしょ 保証書 guarantee
8 りょうしゅうしょ 領収書 receipt
9 おくりもの[~をします] 贈り物 gift, present (give a present)
10 まちがいでんわ まちがい電話 wrong (telephone) number
11 キャンプ camp
12 かかり person in charge
13 ちゅうし 中止 calling off, cancelling, suspension
14 てん point, score
15 レバー lever
16 [~えん]さつ [~円]札 (~ yen) note, bill
17 ちゃんと regularly, properly
18 きゅうに 急に suddenly
19 たのしみにしています 楽しみにしています be looking forward to, be expecting
20 いじょうです 以上です That’s all
21 かかりいん 係員 person in charge, attendant
22 コース course
23 スタート start
24 ~い ~位 ~ th (ranking)
25 ゆうしょうします 優勝します win the championship
26 なやみ 悩み trouble, worry
27 めざまし[どけい] 目覚まし[時計] alarm clock
28 ねむります 眠ります sleep
29 めがさめます 目が覚めます wake up
30 だいがくせい 大学生 university student
31 かいとう 回答 answer, reply
32 なります 鳴ります ring
33 セットします set
34 それでも nevertheless, for all that

 

Part 2: Grammar

V dictionary form

V-form

Vない-formない

-adj (~い)

-adj

N

場合は、~

 

~ばあいはis an expression used to talk about a hypothetical situation. The sentence after it indicates how to cope with such a situation or its consequence. ばあいはfollows either verbs, adjectives or nouns. Because ばあいis a noun, the form of verbs, い-adjectives, な-adjectives and nouns connected to it are the same as the forms when modifying nouns.

会議に間に合わない場合は、連絡してください。

If you cannot be in time for the meeting, please inform us.

時間に遅れた場合は、会場に入れません。

If you are late, you will not be admitted to the hall.

ファクスの調子が悪い場合は、どうしたらいいですか。

In the event that the fax machine does not work well, what should I do?

領収書が必要な場合は、係に言ってください。

When you need a receipt, please tell the person in charge.

火事や地震の場合は、エレベーターを使わないでください。

In case of fire or earthquake, do not use the elevator.

  1. Plain form のに、~

-adj / N:~だ  → ~な

のにfollows either verbs, adjectives, or nouns. Their forms used with のにare plain form. のにis used when what is stated in the second clause runs contrary to what is expected from the first clause.

約束をしたのに、彼女は来ませんでした。(*)

She did not come, even though she promised.

きょうは日曜日なのに、働かなければなりません。(**)

Even though today is Sunday, I have to work.

In (*), the speaker expects that the woman will come because she promised to do so. So he naturally feels disappointed that she did not come. In (**), Sunday is normally a holiday, yet the speaker has to work so he feels dissatisfied. The second clause implies feelings of unexpectedness or dissatisfaction.

[Note] The difference between ~のにand~が/~ても :

わたしの部屋は狭いですが、きれいです。(i)

(X狭いのに)

My room is small but clean.

あした雨が降っても、出かけます。(ii)

(X雨が降るのに)

Even if it rains tomorrow, I will go out.

~がand ~てもin (i) and (ii) cannot be substituted with ~のに. This is because (i) simply joins two different evaluations together and the second clause therein does not represent an unexpected consequence of what is stated in the first clause. The first clause of (ii) suggests a possibility, but ~のにcan only indicate things that have actually occurred in reality.

約束をしたのに、どうして来なかったんですか。(iii)

(X約束をしましたが)    (X約束をしても)

You promised to come. Why didn’t you come?

~のにin (iii) cannot be substituted with ~がor ~ても. This is because the second clause expresses a strong reproach.

The above is all knowledge about Vocabulary and Grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 45. To see other lessons, please click here.

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