Minna no Nihongo lesson 40 – All vocabulary and grammar with explanation

Minna no Nihongo Lesson 40 will introduce you to 65 new words and 5 new grammar structures of Japanese

Vocabulary and grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 40

  • Part 1: Vocabulary
  • Part 2: Grammar

Part 1: Vocabulary

Listed below are 65 new words that appear in lesson 40. Let’s review these words before learning grammar.

1 かぞえます 数えます count
2 はかります 測ります、量ります measure, weigh
3 たしかめます 確かめます confirm, make sure
4 あいます[サイズが~] 合います (the size) fit
5 しゅっぱつします 出発します depart
6 とうちゃくします 到着します arrive
7 よいます 酔います get drunk
8 きけん[な] 危険[な] dangerous
9 ひつよう[な] 必要[な] necessary
10 うちゅう 宇宙 space, universe
11 ちきゅう 地球 earth
12 ぼうねんかい 忘年会 year-end party
13 しんねんかい 新年会 New Year’s party
14 にじかい 二次回 second party
15 たいかい 大会 mass meeting, convention
16 マラソン marathon
17 コンテスト contest
18 おもて face, front
19 うら back (side)
20 へんじ 返事 reply
21 もうしこみ 申し込み application
22 ほんとう truth, fact
23 まちがい mistake
24 きず defect, wound, scratch
25 ズボン trousers
26 ながさ 長さ length
27 おもさ 重さ weight
28 たかさ 高さ height
29 おおきさ 大きさ size, scale
30 ~びん ~便 flight, flight number
31 ~ごう ~号 train number, typhoon number, etc.
32 ~こ ~個 (counter for small objects)
33 ~ほん、ぼん、ぽん (counter for long objects)
34 ~はい、ばい、ぱい glass or cup of (counter for full cups,  glasses, etc.)
35 キロ kilograms, kilometers
36 グラム grams
37 センチ centimeters
38 ミリ millimeters
39 ~いじょう ~以上 not less than ~, over ~
40 ~いか ~以下 no more than ~, under ~
41 さあ well, let me see (used when unsure of something)
42 ゴッホ Vincent van Gogh, Dutch painter (1853-90)
43 ゆきまつり 雪祭り Snow Festival in Sapporo
44 のぞみ name of Shinkansen train
45 JL Japan Airlines
46 どうでしょうか How is ~ ? (polite way of saying どうですか)
47 クラス class
48 テスト text, examination
49 せいせき 成績 performance, score, result
50 ところで by the way
51 いっらしゃいます come (respectful equivalent of きます)
52 ようす 様子 situation, condition, appearance
53 じけん 事件 incident, case
54 オートバイ motorcycle
55 ばくだん 爆弾 bomb
56 つみます 積みます load, pile up
57 うんてんしゅ 運転手 driver
58 はなれた 離れた remote
59 きゅうに 急に suddenly
60 うごかします 動かします start, operate, move
61 いっしょうけんめい 一生懸命 will all one’s effort
62 はんにん 犯人 suspect, criminal
63 てにいれます 手に入れます obtain, get
64 いまでも 今でも even now
65 うわさします gossip


Part 2: Grammar

  1. Interrogative + plain form + か、~

-adj / N:~だ  → ~な

A question with an interrogative is used as a component of a sentence in this sentence pattern.


Please check what time JL107 will arrive.


We are talking about what to give as a wedding present.


Do you remember when it was that we first met?

  1. Plain form + かどうか、~

-adj / N:~だ  → ~な

A question without an interrogative is used as a component of a sentence in this sentence pattern. Note that どうかis necessary after “plain form か“.


Please answer by the 20th whether you’ll attend the year-end party or not.


I don’t know whether the story is true or not.


Please check if there are no mistakes.

In (*), not まちがいがあるかどうかbut まちがいがないかどうかis used before because the speaker wants to confirm that there are no mistakes.

  1. V-form みます

This sentence pattern is used to show that the action denoted by the verb is a trial.


I’ll think it over again.


I want to see the earth from space (to know how it looks).


May I try on this pair of trousers?

  1. -adj () → ~さ

Change the final いof an い-adjective into さ, and you can transform the adjective into a noun.

e.g.,  高いà高さ 長い à長さ 速い à 速さ


Do you know how to measure the height of a mountain?


The new bridge is 3,911 meters long.

  1. ハンスは学校でどうでしょうか。

~でしょうか, which is used to ask a question whose answer the listener might be uncertain of, is also used to ask a question whose answer the listener is sure to be able to give. In this case, it is euphemistic and hence more polite.

The above is all knowledge about Vocabulary and Grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 40. To see other lessons, please click here.

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