Minna no Nihongo lesson 39 – All vocabulary and grammar with explanation

Minna no Nihongo Lesson 39 will introduce you to 43 new words and 4 new grammar structures of Japanese

Vocabulary and grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 39

  • Part 1: Vocabulary
  • Part 2: Grammar

Part 1: Vocabulary

Listed below are 43 new words that appear in lesson 39. Let’s review these words before learning grammar.

NO WORD KANJI MEANING
1 こたえます[しつもんに~] 答えます[質問に~] answer (a question)
2 たおれます[ビルが~] 倒れます (a building) fall down
3 やけます

[うちが~]

[パンが~]

[にくが~]

焼けます

 

 

[肉が~]

 

(a house) burn down

(bread) be baked

(meat) be roasted, be grilled

 

4 とおります[みちを~] 通ります[道を~] pass (a long street)
5 しにます 死にます die
6 びっくりします be surprised
7 がっかりします be disappointed
8 あんしんします 安心します be relieved
9 ちこくします 遅刻します be late, come late
10 そうたいします 早退します leave (work or school) earlier than usual
11 けんかします quarrel, fight
12 りこんします 離婚します divorce
13 ふくざつ[な] 複雑[な] complicated, complex
14 じゃま[な] 邪魔[な] obstructive, in the way
15 きたない 汚い dirty
16 うれしい glad, happy
17 かなしい 悲しい sad
18 はずかしい 恥ずかしい embarrassed, ashamed
19 じしん 地震 earthquake
20 たいふう 台風 typhoon
21 かじ 火事 fire
22 じこ 事故 accident
23 [お]みあい [お]見合い interview with a view to marriage
24 でんわだい 電話代 telephone charge
25 ~だい ~代 charge, fare, fee
26 フロント front desk, reception desk
27 ~ごうしつ ~号室 room number ~
28 あせ[~をかきます] perspiration (perspire)
29 タオル towel
30 せっけん soap
31 おおぜい 大勢 a great number of people
32 おつかれさまでした お疲れさまでした Thank you for your hard work (used to express appreciation for a colleague’s or subordinate’s work)
33 うかがいます 伺います I’m coming (humble way of saying いきます)
34 とちゅうで 途中で on the way, in the midst of
35 トラック truck, lorry
36 ぶつかります bump, collide
37 ならびます 並びます stand in a queue, line up
38 おとな 大人 adult
39 ようふく 洋服 Western clothes
40 せいようかします 西洋化します be Westernized
41 あいます 合います fit, suit
42 いまでは 今では now
43 せいじんしき 成人式 coming-of-age celebration

 

Part 2: Grammar

V-form

Vない-formなくて

-adj () → ~くて

-adj [] → 

、~

 

In this sentence pattern, the first part of the sentence presents a cause and the second part presents the consequence produced by the cause. Unlike ~からthat you learned in Lesson 9, this pattern has many constraints over its usage.

1) The words which come in the latter part are limited to those words which do not contain volition:

– Verbs and adjectives to express feelings, such as びっくりする, あんしんする, こまる, さびしい, うれしい, ざんねんだ, etc.:

ニュースを聞いて、びっくりしました。

I was surprised to hear the news.

家族に会えなくて、寂しいです。

I’m sad because I can’t meet my family

– Potential verbs and verbs to express states:

土曜日は都合が悪くて、行けません。

Saturday is inconvenient for me, so I cannot come.

話が複雑で、よくわかりませんでした。

The story was complicated, so I could not understand it well.

– Situations in the past:

事故があって、バスが遅れてしまいました。

The bus was delayed by an accident.

授業に遅れて、先生にしかれました。

I was late for the lesson, so I was scolded by my teacher.

2) Expressions containing volition (will, orders, invitation or request) are not used in the latter part of the sentence. When the latter part of the sentence contains volition, the phrase with てcannot be used and instead the phrase withから is used.

危ないですから、機械に触らないでください。

It is dangerous, so please do not touch the machine.

x 危なくて、機械に触らないでください。

3) In this sentence pattern, the first part and the second part of the sentence are sequential events. In other words, the first part takes place first and the second part takes place after that.

あした会議がありますから、きょう準備しなければなりません。

The meeting will be held tomorrow, so we have to make preparations for it today.

x あした会議があって、きょう準備しなければなりません。

  1. N

The particleで that you learn in this lesson indicates a cause. Nouns used in this case are those which indicate natural phenomena, happenings, events such as じこ, じしん, かじ, etc. As with sentence pattern in 1., in this construction expressions containing volition are not used as predicates.

地震でビルが倒れました。

Because of the earthquake, a building collapsed.

病気で会社を休みました。

Because of illness, I took a day off work.

x 病気であした会社を休みたいです。

  1. Plain form ので、~

な-adj / N:~だ  à ~な

Like~から that you learned in Lesson 9, ~のでindicates causes and reasons. While ~からsubjectively highlights a cause or a reason, ~のでobjectively presents a cause and effect relationship as a natural course of events. As the use of ~のでsoftens the view of the speaker, leaving a weak impact on the listener, it is often used to express a reason gently, to ask for permission or to make an excuse.

日本語がわからないので、英語で話していただけませんか。

I don’t understand Japanese, so would you please speak in English?

用事があるので、お先に失礼します。

May I leave now? I have something to do.

As it is soft expression, it is not used with the imperative or the prohibitive forms.

危ないから、機械に触るな。

Don’t touch the machine because it’s dangerous.

x 危ないので、機械に触るな。

[Note]ので is used with the plain form as shown above. In more polite expressions, however, it can be used with the polite form.

用事がありますので、お先に失礼します。

(=用事があるので、お先に失礼します。)

May I leave now? I have something to do.

  1. 途中で

とちゅうでmeans “during” or “on the way to”. It follows V dictionary form or N の.

実は来る途中で事故があって、バスが遅れてしまったんです。

Actually, on my way here there was an accident and the bus was delayed.

マラソンの途中で気分が悪くなりました。

I got sick during the marathon.

The above is all knowledge about Vocabulary and Grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 39. To see other lessons, please click here.

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