Minna no Nihongo lesson 38 – All vocabulary and grammar with explanation

Minna no Nihongo Lesson 38 will introduce you to 45 new words and 7 new grammar structures of Japanese

Vocabulary and grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 38

  • Part 1: Vocabulary
  • Part 2: Grammar

Part 1: Vocabulary

Listed below are 45 new words that appear in lesson 38. Let’s review these words before learning grammar.

1 そだてます 育てます breed, bring up
2 はこびます 運びます carry, transport
3 なくなります 亡くなります pass away (euphemistic expression for しにます)
4 にゅういんします 入院します enter hospital
5 たいいんします 退院します leave hospital
6 いれます[でんげんを~] 入れます[電源を~] turn on (the power switch)
7 きります[でんげん~


切ります[電源を~] turn off (the power switch)
8 かけます[かぎを~] 掛けます lock
9 きもちがいい 気持ちがいい pleasant, agreeable
10 きもちがわるい 気持ちが悪い unpleasant, disgusting
11 おおきな~ 大きな~ large ~
12 ちいさな~ 小さな~ small ~
13 あかちゃん 赤ちゃん baby
14 しょうがっこう 小学校 elementary school
15 ちゅうがっこう 中学校 junior high school
16 えきまえ 駅前 the area in front of the station
17 かいがん 海岸 seaside, seashore
18 うそ lie, fib
19 しょるい 書類 document, papers
20 でんげん 電源 power switch
21 ~せい ~製 made in ~
22 [あ]いけない Oops!/ Oh, no! (used when one has made a mistake)
23 おさきに[しつれいします] お先に[失礼します] Excuse me (for leaving before you)
24 げんばくドーム 原爆ドーム dome commemorating the atomic bombing of Hiroshima
25 かいらん 回覧 circular, sending around
26 けんきゅうしつ 研究室 study room, professor’s office, laboratory
27 きちんと neatly, tidily
28 せいりします 整理します put (things) in order, tidy up
2 9 ~というほん ~という本 the book titled ~, the book named ~
30 ~さつ ~冊 (counter for books, etc.)
31 はんこ seal stamp
32 おします[はんこを~] 押します affix (a seal)
33 ふたご 双子 twins
34 しまい 姉妹 sisters
35 5ねんせい 5年生 fifth grade, fifth year
36 にています 似ています resemble, be like
37 せいかく 性格 character
38 おとなしい quiet
39 せわをします 世話をします take care
40 じかんがたちます 時間がたちます time pass by
41 だいすき[な] 大好き[な] like very much
42 ~てん ~点 ~ points
43 クラス class
44 けんかします quarrel, fight
45 ふしぎ[な] 不思議[な] mysterious, strange


Part 2: Grammar

  1. V plain form

Attach the particle のto the plain form of a verb and you can nominalize the phrase accompanying that verb.

  1. V dictionary formのは adjectiveです


Tennis is fun.


Playing tennis is fun.


Watching tennis is fun.

(*) simply refers to tennis as a sport, while (**) and (***) are more specific in referring to either playing or watching tennis. Such adjectives as むずかしい, やさしい, おもしろい, たのしい, きけん[な], たいへん[な], etc., are frequently used in this sentence pattern.

  1. V dictionary formのが adjectiveです


I like flowers.


I like growing flowers.


People in Tokyo walk fast.

The adjectives which are used in this sentence pattern are usually ones that describe likes or dislikes and skills or capabilities such as すき[な], きらい[な], じょうず[な], へた[な], はやい, おそい, etc.

  1. V dictionary form のを忘れました

forgot to do …


I forgot the key.


I forgot to buy milk.


I forgot to close the car window.

  1. V plain formのを知っていますか。

Do you know that …?

This is an expression asking whether the listener knows what is described in the clause preceding の.


Do you know that Mr. Suzuki is going to get married next month?

[Note] The difference betweenしりません and しりませんでした.



Do you know that Ms. Kimura had a baby?

No, I didn’t.



Do you know Mr. Miller’s address?

No, I don’t.

しりませんでしたis used in an example (i), because the person replying has got the information from the question. In example (ii), however, しりませんis used because the person replying has not got any information from the question.

  1. Plain form のはNです

   -adj / N:~だ → ~な


My daughter was born in a small town in Hokkaido.


My daughter’s birthplace is a small town in Hokkaido.


December is the busiest month of the year.


The busiest month of the year is December.

This pattern is used when a noun representing a thing, a person, a place,  etc., is replaced with のand then taken up as the topic of the sentence.

  1. ~ときも/~ときや/~ときの/~ときに、etc.

Various particles can be attached to ~とき, which you learned in Lesson 23, because the word ときis a noun.


I remember my hometown when I am tired or lonely.


I have been living in Osaka since I was born.

The above is all knowledge about Vocabulary and Grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 38. To see other lessons, please click here.

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