Minna no Nihongo lesson 37 – All vocabulary and grammar with explanation

Minna no Nihongo Lesson 37 will introduce you to 56 new words and 6 new grammar structures of Japanese

Vocabulary and grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 37

  • Part 1: Vocabulary
  • Part 2: Grammar

Part 1: Vocabulary

Listed below are 56 new words that appear in lesson 37. Let’s review these words before learning grammar.

1 ほめます 褒めます praise
2 しかります scold
3 さそいます 誘います invite, ask someone to join
4 おこします 起こします wake (someone) up
5 しょうたいします 招待します invite
6 たのみます 頼みます ask, request
7 ちゅういします 注意します warn, advise
8 とります rob, steal
9 ふみます 踏みます step on (someone’s foot)
10 こわします 壊します break, destroy
11 よごします 汚します make ~ dirty
12 おこないます 行います hold, carry out, practice
13 ゆしゅつします 輸出します export
14 ゆにゅうします 輸入します import
15 ほんやくします 翻訳します translate
16 はつめいします 発明します invent
17 はっけんします 発見します discover
18 せっけいします 設計します design, plan
19 こめ rice
20 むぎ barley, wheat
21 せきゆ 石油 oil
22 げんりょう 原料 raw material
23 デート date
24 どろぼう 泥棒 thief, robber
25 けいかん 警官 policeman
26 けんちくか 建築家 architect
27 かがくしゃ 科学者 scientist
28 まんが 漫画 comics
29 せかいじゅう 世界中 all over the world
30 ~じゅう ~中 all over ~
31 ~によって by ~
32 よかったですね That’s lucky, isn’t it
33 ドミニカ Dominica
34 げんじものがたり 源氏物語 “The Tale of Genji” (Japanese novel)
35 むらさきしきぶ 紫式部 Heian Period (9th century) female novelist who wrote “The Tale of Genji” (973?-1014?)
36 グラハム・ベル Alexander Graham Bell, American inventor (1847-1922)
37 とうしょうぐう 東照宮 shrine dedicated to Tokugawa Ieyasu in Nikko, Tochigi Prefecture
38 えどじだい 江戸時代 Edo Period (1603-1868)
39 サウジアラビア Saudi Arabia
40 うめたてます 埋め立てます reclaim
41 ぎじゅつ 技術 technology, technique
42 とち 土地 land
43 そうおん 騒音 noise
44 りようします 利用します use
45 アクセス access
46 ごうか[な] 豪華[な] gorgeous
47 ちょうこく 彫刻 engraving, carving, sculpture
48 ねむります 眠ります sleep
49 ほります 彫ります engrave, carve
50 なかま 仲間 colleague, friend
51 そのあと after that
52 いっしょうけんめい 一生懸命 with all one’s effort
53 ねずみ mouse
54 いっぴきもいません 一匹もいません There is not a single (mouse)
55 ねむりねこ 眠り猫 The sleeping cat
56 ひだりじんごろう 左甚五郎 famous Japanese sculptor of the Edo Period (1594-1651)


Part 2: Grammar

  1. Passive verbs

How to make passive verbs

Passive verbs
polite form plain form
I かきます かかれます かかれる
II ほめます ほめられます ほめられる
III きます






All passive verbs are Group II verbs; they conjugate into the dictionary form, ない-form, て-form, etc.

e.g. かかれる, かかれ(ない), かかれて

  1. N1 (person1) N2 (person2) V passive

When a person (person2)’s action is directed to another person (peson1), person1 can state it from his/her side by using this sentence pattern. In this case, person1 becomes the topic of the sentence, person2 is marked with に, and a passive verb is used.


My teacher praised me.


I was praised by my teacher.


My mother asked me to go shopping.


I was asked to go shopping by my mother.

Something that moves (animals, cars, etc.) can replace person2 in this sentence pattern.


I was bitten by a dog.

  1. N1 (person1) N2 (person2)N3 V passive

When a person (person2)’s action is directed to an object belonging to another person (person 1), and person1 feels annoyed or troubled, person1 uses this sentence pattern to express his/her feelings.


My brother broke my personal computer.


I had my personal computer broken by my brother.

Like in sentence pattern 2 above, an animate object or something that moves can replace person2.


I had my hand bitten by a dog.

[Note 1] In this sentence pattern, the topic of the sentence is not the object (N3) of the verb but person1 (N1), who feel annoyed or troubled by what person2 does to the object belonging to him/her. Thusわたしのパソコンはおとうとにこわされました is not correct. You should use sentence (*) shown above instead.

[Note 2] As this sentence pattern is used when person1 is troubled by what person2 does, it cannot be used when person1 is grateful for what person2 does. ~てもらいますis used instead.


I had my bicycle repaired by my friend.

x わたしは友達に自転車を修理されました。

  1. N (thing) が/はV passive

When you need not mention the person who does the action denoted by a verb, you can make the object of the verb the subject of the sentence. In this case, a passive verb is used.


An old Japanese picture has been discovered in France.


Japanese cars are exported all over the world.


The assembly was held in Kobe.

  1. N1 N2 (person) によってV passive

When something is created or discovered, and it is stated using a passive verb, the person who created or discovered it is indicated by によってinstead ofに. Verbs like かきます, はつめいします, はっけんします, etc., are used in this sentence pattern.


“The Tale of Genji” was written by Murasaki Shikibu.


The telephone was invented by Bell.

  1. Nから/ Nでつくります

When something is made from a raw material, the material is marked withから. When it is obvious to the eye that something is made of a particular material, the material is marked with で.


Beer is made from barley.

昔 日本の家は木で造られました。

Japanese houses were made of wood in the past.

The above is all knowledge about Vocabulary and Grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 37. To see other lessons, please click here.

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