Minna no Nihongo lesson 36 – All vocabulary and grammar with explanation

Minna no Nihongo Lesson 36 will introduce you to 49 new words and 4 new grammar structures of Japanese

Vocabulary and grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 36

  • Part 1: Vocabulary
  • Part 2: Grammar

Part 1: Vocabulary

Listed below are 49 new words that appear in lesson 36. Let’s review these words before learning grammar.

NO WORD KANJI MEANING
1 とどきます[にもつが~] 届きます[荷物が~] (parcels) be delivered
2 でます[しあいに~] 出ます[試合に~] participate (in the game)
3 うちます[ワープロを~] 打ちます type (on a word processor)
4 ちょきんします 貯金します save money
5 ふとります 太ります get flat
6 やせます get slim, lose weight
7 すぎます[7じを~] 過ぎます[7時を~] pass (7 o’clock)
8 なれます[しゅうかんに~] 慣れます[習慣に~] get accustomed to (the customs)
9 かたい 硬い hard, tough, solid
10 やわらかい 軟らかい soft, tender
11 でんし~ 電子~ electronic ~
12 けいたい~ 携帯~ portable ~
13 こうじょう 工場 factory
14 けんこう 健康 health
15 けんどう 剣道 kendo (Japanese style fencing)
16 まいしゅう 毎週 every week
17 まいつき 毎月 every month
18 まいとし(まいねん) 毎年 every year
19 やっと finally
20 かなり fairly
21 かならず 必ず without fail, by any means
22 ぜったいに 絶対に absolutely (used with negatives)
23 じょうずに 上手に well, skillfully
24 できるだけ as much as possible
25 このごろ these days
26 ~ずつ ~ (some amount) per (some suit)
27 そのほうが~ That is more ~
28 ショパン Chopin, Polish musician (1810-49)
29 おきゃくさま お客様 guest, customer
30 とくべつ[な] 特別[な] special
31 していらっしゃいます be doing (respectful equivalent of しています)
32 すいえい 水泳 swimming
33 ~とか、~とか ~, ~, and so on
34 タンゴ tango
35 チャレンジします challenge
36 きもち 気持ち feeling, enthusiasm
37 のりもの 乗り物 vehicle, means of transportation
38 れきし 歴史 history
39 ~せいき ~世紀 -th century
40 とおく 遠く far, remote place
41 きしゃ 汽車 locomotive
42 きせん 汽船 steamboat
43 おおぜいの~ 大勢の~ many (people)
44 はこびます 運びます carry, transport
45 とびます 飛びます fly
46 あんぜん[な] 安全[な] safe
47 うちゅう 宇宙 space, universe
48 ちきゅう 地球 earth
49 ライトきょうだい ライト兄弟 Wright brothers, American pioneers in aviation

 

Part 2: Grammar

V1 dictionary form

V1ない-formない

ように、V2

 V1 indicates a purpose or an aim, while V2 indicates a volitional action to get closer to that objective.

速く泳げるように、毎日練習しています。

I practice every day so that I can swim fast.

忘れないように、メモしてください。

Please take a memo so that you will not forget.

The dictionary form of non-volitional verbs such as potential verbs, わかります, みえます,きこえます, なります, etc., or a verb in its negative form should be used before ように.

V dictionary formように

Vない-formなく

なります

1) なりますindicates that a state changes into another state. The verbs used here express ability or possibility: such as potential verbs, わかります, みえます, etc. V dictionary form ようになりますindicates that a state in which something cannot be done has changed into a state in which it can be done. Vない-formなくなります indicates the reverse (i.e., something can no longer be done).

毎日練習すれば、泳げるようになります。

If you practice every day, you will become able to swim.

やっと自転車に乗れるようになりました。

I’ve finally become able to ride a bicycle.

年を取ると、小さい字が読めなくなります。

As you get older, you cannot read small letters.

太りましたから、好きな服が着られなくなりました。

I gained weight so I can no longer wear my favorite dress.

2) How to give a negative answer to ~ようになりましたかis as follows:

ショパンが弾けるようになりましたか。

いいえ、まだ弾けません。

Have you become able to play work by Chopin?

No, not yet.

[Note] Using a verb which does not reflect ability will render the meaning that a habit which does not exist before has been acquired or a habit which existed before has become obsolete.

日本人は100年ぐらいまえから牛肉や豚肉を食べるようになりました。

The Japanese started to eat beef and pork from about 100 years ago.

車を買ってから、わたしはあまり歩かなくなりました。

I do not walk much since I bought a car.

Such verbs as なれる, ふとる, やせる, etc., which denotes change itself cannot be used in this sentence pattern.

3.

V dictionary form

Vない-formない

ようにします

This sentence pattern is used to express that one habitually or continuously makes efforts to do something or not to do something.

1) ~ようにしています

This expresses that one habitually and continuously tries to do something.

毎日運動して、何でも食べるようにしています。

I try to take exercise every day and eat a variety of foods.

歯に悪いですから、甘いものを食べないようにしています。

I try not to eat sweets because they are bad for my teeth.

2)  ~ようにしてください

~て/~ないでくださいare direct request expressions, while ~ようにしてくださいis an indirect request expression and more polite than the former. This pattern is used as shown below.

When requesting someone to try to do something habitually and continuously.

もっと野菜を食べるようにしてください。

Please try to eat more vegetables.

When politely requesting someone to try to do something in a one-off situation.

あしたは絶対に時間に遅れないようにしてください。

Please be sure not to be late tomorrow.

[Note] ~ようにしてくださいcannot be used when requesting something to be done on the spot.

すみませんが、塩を取ってください。

Excuse me, please pass me the salt.

x すみませんが、塩を取るようにしてください。

  1. とか

~とかis used to give some examples just like~や, but ~とかis more colloquial. Unlike や, とかsometimes comes after the last noun to be mentioned.

どんなスポーツをしていますか。

そうですね。テニスとか水泳とか…。

What kind of sports do you do?

Well, playing tennis, swimming, and so on.

The above is all knowledge about Vocabulary and Grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 36. To see other lessons, please click here.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *