Minna no Nihongo lesson 33 – All vocabulary and grammar with explanation

Minna no Nihongo Lesson 33 will introduce you to 54 new words and 6 new grammar structures of Japanese

Vocabulary and grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 33

  • Part 1: Vocabulary
  • Part 2: Grammar

Part 1: Vocabulary

Listed below are 54 new words that appear in lesson 33. Let’s review these words before learning grammar.

NO WORD KANJI MEANING
1 にげます 逃げます run away
2 さわぎます 騒ぎます make a noise
3 あきらめます give up
4 なげます 投げます throw
5 まもります 守ります keep, follow, obey
6 あげます 上げます raise, lift up
7 さげます 下げます lower, pull down
8 つたえます 伝えます convey (a message)
9 ちゅういします[くるまに~] 注意します[車に~] be careful (of the cars)
10 はずします[せきを~] 外します[席を~] be away (from one’s desk)
11 だめ[な] no good, not permitted, impossible
12 せき seat
13 ファイト fight
14 マーク mark
15 ボール ball
16 せんたくき 洗濯機 washing machine
17 ~き ~機 ~ machine
18 きそく 規則 regulation, rule
19 しようきんし 使用禁止 Do not use
20 たちいりきんし 立入禁止 Keep out
21 いりぐち 入口 entrance
22 でぐち 出口 exit
23 ひじょうぐち 非常口 emergency exit
24 むりょう 無料 free of charge
25 ほんじつきゅうぎょう 本日休業 closed today
26 えいぎょうちゅう 営業中 open for business
27 しようちゅう 使用中 in use
28 ~ちゅう ~中 ~ ing
29 どういう~ what kind of ~
30 もう (not) any longer (used with negatives)
31 あと ~ left
32 ちゅうしゃいはん 駐車違反 parking violation
33 そりゃあ well
34 ~いない ~以内 within ~
35 けいさつ 警察 police station
36 ばっきん 罰金 fine
37 でんぽう 電報 telegram
38 ひとびと 人々 people
39 きゅうよう 急用 urgent business
40 うちます[でんぽうを~] 打ちます[電報を~] send (a telegram)
41 でんぽうだい 電報代 telegram charge
42 できるだけ as much as possible
43 みじかく 短く shortly, briefly
44 また and
45 たとえば 例えば for example
46 きとく 危篤 in a critical situation
47 おもいびょうき 重い病気 serious illness
48 あす 明日 tomorrow
49 るす 留守 absence
50 るすばん 留守番 looking after a house during the owner’s absence
51 [お]いわい [お]祝い celebration
52 なくなります 亡くなります pass away, die
53 かなしみ 悲しみ sorrow, sadness
54 りようします 利用します use

 

Part 2: Grammar

  1. Imperative and prohibitive forms

1) How to make imperative form of verbs

Group I: Change the last sound of the ます-form into the sound of the え-line.

Group II: Attach ろto the ます-form.

Group III: しますbecomesしろ, and きますbecomes こい.

[Note] Non-volitional verbs such as わかる, できる, ある, etc., do not have imperative forms.

2) How to make the prohibitive form of verbs

With every verb, attach なto the dictionary form.

  1. Use of the imperative and prohibitive forms.

1) The imperative form is used to force a person to do something and the prohibitive form is used to command a person not to do something. Both the imperative and prohibitive forms have strong coercive connotations, so much so that the use of these forms alone or at the end of an imperative sentence is very limited. In colloquial expressions, the use of either form is, in most cases, limited to male speakers.

2) Both the imperative and prohibitive forms are used alone or at the end of a sentence in the following instances:

– By a man senior in status or age to a person junior to him, or by a father to his child.

早く寝ろ。                                        Go to bed immediately.

遅れるな。                                        Don’t be late.

– Between men who are friends. In this case, the particleよ is often attached at the end of the sentence to soften the tone.

あしたうちへ来い[よ]。                  Come to my house tomorrow.

あまり飲むな[よ]。                          Don’t drink too much.

– When there is not enough time to be very polite; e.g., when giving instructions to a large number of people in a factory or during an emergency, etc. Even in this case, they may be used only by men senior in status or age.

逃げろ。                                            Run.

エレベーターを使うな。                Don’t use the elevator.

– When a command is required during training many people or making students take exercise at schools and sport clubs.

休め。                                            Rest.

休むな。                                            Don’t rest.

– When cheering at sporting events. In this case the expressions below are sometimes used by women as well.

頑張れ。                                            Fight!

負けるな。                                        Don’t lose!

– When a strong impact or brevity is required, as in traffic sign or in slogan.

止まれ。                                            Stop.

入るな。                                            Don’t enter.

[Note] Vます-form なさいis another imperative style. It is used by parents to their children or by teachers to their students and is a little gentler than the imperative form. So women use in this style instead of the imperative form. Yet it is not used when speaking to a senior.

勉強しなさい。                                Study.

  1. ~と読みますand~と書いてあります

あの漢字は何と読むんですか。

How do you read that Kanji?

あそこに「止まれ」と書いてあります。

“Tomare” is written over there.

とabove indicates the content in the same way as とof~といいます (Lesson 21).

  1. X Y という意味です

“X” means “Y”

This pattern is used to define the meaning of the word represented by “X” .という comes from といいます. The interrogativeどういう is used to ask the meaning.

「立入禁止」は入るなという意味です。

“Tachiiri-Kinshi” means don’t enter.

このマークはどういう意味ですか。

洗濯機で洗えるという意味です。

What does this sign mean?

It means machine washable.

  1. “ S “ と言っていました

    plain formと言っていました

~といいましたis used when quoting a third person’s words (Lesson 21), while ~といっていましたis used when conveying a third person’s message.

田中さんは「あした休みました」と言っていました。

Mr. Tanaka said, “I will take a day off work tomorrow.”

田中さんはあした休むと言っていました。

Mr. Tanaka said that he would take a day off work tomorrow.

  1. “ S “ と伝えていただけませんか

    plain formと伝えていただけませんか

These expressions are used when politely asking someone to convey a message.

ワンさんに「あとで電話をください」と伝えていただけませんか。

Could you please tell Mr. Wang to give me a call later?

すみませんが、渡辺さんにあしたのパーティーは6時からだと伝えていただけませんか。

Could you please tell Ms. Watanabe that the party tomorrow will be from 6 o’clock?

The above is all knowledge about Vocabulary and Grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 33. To see other lessons, please click here.

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