Minna no Nihongo lesson 31 – All vocabulary and grammar with explanation

Minna no Nihongo Lesson 31 will introduce you to 44 new words and 6 new grammar structures of Japanese

Vocabulary and grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 31

  • Part 1: Vocabulary
  • Part 2: Grammar

Part 1: Vocabulary

Listed below are 44 new words that appear in lesson 31. Let’s review these words before learning grammar.

1 はじまります[しきが~] 始まります[式が~] [ a ceremony] begin, start
2 つづけます 続けます continue
3 みつけます 見つけます find
4 うけます[しけんを] 受けます take [an examination]
5 にゅうがくします


入学します[大学に~] enter [a university]
6 そつぎょうします[だいがくを~] 卒業します[大学を~] graduate [from a university]
7 しゅっせきします[かいぎに~] 出席します[会議に~] attend [a meeting]
8 きゅうけいします 休憩します take a break, take a rest
9 れんきゅう 連休 consecutive holidays
10 さくぶん 作文 essay, composition
11 てんらんかい 展覧会 exhibition
12 けっこんしき 結婚式 wedding ceremony
13 [お]そうしき [お]葬式 funeral
14 しき ceremony
15 ほんしゃ 本社 head office
16 してん 支店 branch office
17 きょうかい 教会 church
18 だいがくいん 大学院 graduate school
19 どうぶつえん 動物園 zoo
20 おんせん 温泉 hot spring, spa
21 おきゃく[さん] お客[さん] visitor, guest, customer, client
22 だれか somebody
23 ~のほう ~の方 place toward ~, direction of ~
24 ずっと all the time
25 ピカソ Pablo Picasso, Spanish painter (1881 – 1973)
26 うえのこうえん 上野公園 Ueno Park (in Tokyo)
27 のこります 残ります remain, be left
28 つきに 月に per month
29 ふつうの 普通の ordinary, common, usual
30 インターネット Internet
31 むら village
32 えいがかん 映画館 movie theater
33 いや[な] 嫌[な] hateful, disagreeable
34 そら sky
35 とじます 閉じます close
36 とかい 都会 city
37 こどもたち 子どもたち children
38 じゆうに 自由に freely
39 せかいじゅう 世界中 all over the world
40 あつまります 集まります gather
41 うつくしい 美しい beautiful
42 しぜん 自然 nature
43 すばらしさ goodness, virtue
44 きがつきます 気がつきます notice, become aware of


Part 2: Grammar

  1. Volitional form

The volitional form of verbs is made as follows.

Group I: Replace the sound of the ます-form with the sound in the お-line of the same row and attach う.

Group II: Attach ようto the ます-form.

Group III: しますbecomesしよう , and きますbecomes こよう.

  1. How to use the volitional form.

1) In plain style sentences

The volitional form is used instead of ~しましょうin plain style sentences.



Shall we take a rest?

Yes, let’s.


How about taking a rest for a while?


Shall I help you?

2) V volitional form と思っています

This sentence pattern is used to express what the speaker is thinking of doing. V volitional form とおもいますcan also express a similar meaning. V volitional formとおもっています implies that the speaker’s decision was made some time ago.


I’m thinking of going to the beach at the weekend.


I’m going to the bank now.

[Note] V volitional formとおもっています can be used to express a third person’s will or intention.


He is thinking of working in a foreign country.

  1. V dictionary form つもりです

    Vない-formない つもりです

V dictionary formつもりです is used to express the speaker’s intention of doing something, and Vない-formない つもりですis used to express the speaker’s intention of not doing something.


Even when I go back to my country, I’ll continue with my judo.


I’m determined not to smoke from tomorrow.

[Note] Compared with V volitional formとおもっています , V dictionary form つもりですsounds more determined.

  1. V dictionary form予定です


By using this sentence pattern, you can inform people of schedules.


I’m scheduled to go on a business trip to Germany at the end of July.


The trip is scheduled to last for a week.

  1. まだV-formいません

This sentence pattern means that something has not taken place or has not been done yet.


The bank is not open yet.



Have you written the report yet?

No, not yet.

  1. こ~/そ~

In writing, a demonstrative belonging to the そ-series, is used when a word(s) or a sentence(s) mentioned before is referred to. Sometimes, however, a demonstrative belonging to the こ-series is used instead. In this case, the writer wants to describe something to the reader as though it really existed then and there.


There’s one thing missing in Tokyo. And that’s beautiful nature.


What I want most is a “magic door”. When you open this door, you can go anywhere you want.

The above is all knowledge about Vocabulary and Grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 31. To see other lessons, please click here.

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