Minna no Nihongo lesson 3 – All vocabulary and grammar with explanation

Minna no Nihongo Lesson 3 will introduce you to 45 new words and 6 new grammar structures of Japanese

Vocabulary and grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 3

  • Part 1: Vocabulary
  • Part 2: Grammar

Part 1: Vocabulary

Listed below are 45 new words that appear in lesson 3. Let’s review these words before learning grammar.

NO WORD KANJI MEANING
1 ここ here, this place
2 そこ there, that place near you
3 あそこ that place over there
4 どこ where, what place
5 こちら this way, this place (the polite equivalent of ここ)
6 そちら that way, that place near you (the polite equivalent of そこ)
7 あちら that way, that place over there (the polite equivalent of あそこ)
8 どちら which way, where (the polite equivalent of どこ)
9 きょうしつ 教室 classroom
10 しょくどう 食堂 the dining hall, canteen
11 じむしょ 事務所 office
12 かいぎしつ 会議室 conference room, assembly room
13 うけつけ 受付 reception desk
14 ロビー lobby
15 へや 部屋 room
16 トイレ(おてあらい) (お手洗い) toilet, rest room
17 かいだん 階段 staircase
18 エレベーター elevator, lift
19 エスカレーター escalator
20 [お]くに [お]国 country
21 かいしゃ 会社 company
22 うち house, home
23 でんわ 電話 telephone, telephone call
24 くつ shoes
25 ネクタイ necktie
26 ワイン wine
27 たばこ tobacco, cigarette
28 うりば 売り場 department, counter (in a department store
29 ちか 地下 basement
30 ―かい(-がい) -階 -th floor
31 なんがい 何階 what floor
32 ―えん ―円 -yen
33 いくら how much
34 ひゃく hundred
35 せん thousand
36 まん ten thousand
37 すみません Excuse me
38 ~でございます (the polite equivalent of です)
39 みせてください [~を]見せてください Please show me [∼]
40 じゃ well, then, in that case
41 [~を]ください Give me [∼], please.
42 しんおおさか 新大阪 name of a station in Osaka
43 イタリア Italy
44 スイス Switzerland
45 MT/ヨーネン/アキックス fictitious companies

Part 2: Grammar

1.ここ / そこ / あそこ / こちら / そちら / あちら

  • The demonstratives これ, それ and あれ that are discussed in Lesson 2 refer to a thing, while これ, それ and あれ refer to a place. ここ is the place where the speaker is, そこ the place where the listener is, あそこ is the place far from both the speaker and the listener.
  • こちら, そちら and あちら are demonstratives refer to direction. こちら, そちら and あちら are also used to refer to location, in which case, they are politer than これ, それ and あれ.

[Note] When the speaker regards the listener as sharing his/her territory, the place where they both are is designated by the word ここ. Under this situation, そこ designated the place a little distant from the speaker and listener, and あそこ designates an even more distant location.

2. N1 は  N2 (place) です

Using this sentence pattern, you can explain where a place, a thing or a person is.

お手洗 い(おてあらい) は あそこです。

The rest room is there.

電話(でんわ) は 2階(かい)です。

The telephone is on the second floor.

Mr.Yamada is in the office.

3. どこ / どちら

  • どこ means “where”, and どちら means “which direction”. どちら can also mean “where”. in which case it’s politer than どこ.

お手洗 い は   どこですか。

… あそこです。

Where’s the rest room?

…It’s there.

エレベーターは どちらですか。

… あちらです。

Where’s the elevator?

… It’s in that direction. (It’s there.)

  • どこ or どちら is also used to ask the name of a country, company, school or any place or organization a person belongs to. You can not use なん (what).
  • どちら is politer than どこ.

学校 (がっこう) は どこですか。

What’s the name of your school?

会社は どちらですか。

What company do you work for?

4. N1 の N2

  • When N1 is the name of a country and N2 is a product, it means that N2 is made in that country.
  • When N1 is the name of a company and N2 is a product, it means that N2 is made by that company.
  • In this structure, どこ is used to ask where or by whom N2 is made.

これは どこのコンピューターですか。

… 日本の コンピューターです。

… IMC の コンピューターです。

Where is this computer made?/ Who is the maker of this computer?

… It’s made in Japan.

… IMC is.

5. The こ / そ / あ / ど system of demonstrative words

こ series そ series あ series ど series
thing これ それ あれ どれ (L.8)
thing/person この その あの どのN (L.16)
place ここ そこ あそこ どこ
direction/place (polite) こちら そちら あちら どちら

6. お国 (おくに)

The prefix お is added to a word concerning the listener or a third person in order to express the speaker’s respect to the person.

[お]国は どちらですか。

Where are you from?

The above is all knowledge about Vocabulary and Grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 3. To see other lessons, please click here.

 

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