Minna no Nihongo lesson 29 – All vocabulary and grammar with explanation

Minna no Nihongo Lesson 29 will introduce you to 47 new words and 5 new grammar structures of Japanese

Vocabulary and grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 29

  • Part 1: Vocabulary
  • Part 2: Grammar

Part 1: Vocabulary

Listed below are 47 new words that appear in lesson 29. Let’s review these words before learning grammar.

NO WORD KANJI MEANING
1 あきます[ドアが~] 開きます (a door) open
2 しまります[ドアが~] 閉まります (a door) close, shut
3 つきます[でんきが~] [電気が~] (a light) come one
4 きえます[でんきが~] 消えます[電気が~] (a light) go off, disappear
5 こみます[みちが~] 込みます[道が~] (a road) get crowded
6 すきます[みちが~] [道が~] (a road) get empty
7 こわれます[いすが~] 壊れます (a chair) break
8 われます[コップが~] 割れます (a glass) break, smash
9 おれます[きが~] 折れます[木が~] (a tree) break, snap
10 やぶれます[かみが~] 破れます[紙が~] (the paper) tear
11 よごれます[ふくが~] 汚れます[服が~] (the clothes) get dirty
12 つきます[ポケットが~] 付きます (a pocket) be attached
13 はずれます[ボタンが~] 外れます (a button) be undone
14 とまります[エレベーターが~] 止まります (an elevator) stop
15 まちがえます make a mistake
16 おとします 落とします drop, lose
17 かかります[かぎが~] 掛かります be locked
18 [お]さら [お]皿 plate, dish
19 [お]ちゃわん rice bowl
20 コップ glass (vessel)
21 ガラス glass (material)
22 ふくろ bag
23 さいふ 財布 wallet, purse
24 えだ branch, twig
25 えきいん 駅員 station employee
26 このへん この辺 this neighborhood, around here
27 ~へん ~辺 the place around ~
28 このくらい about this size
29 おさきにどうぞ お先にどうぞ After you/Go ahead, please
30 [ああ]よかった Thank goodness!
31 いまのでんしゃ 今の電車 the train which has just left
32 わすれもの 忘れ物 things left behind, lost property
33 ~がわ ~側 ~ side
34 ポケット pocket
35 おぼえていません 覚えていません I don’t remember
36 あみだな 網棚 rack
37 たしか 確か I suppose, if I am correct
38 よつや 四ツ谷 name of a station in Tokyo
39 じしん 地震 earthquake
40 かべ wall
41 はり hands (of a clock)
42 さします 指します point
43 えきまえ 駅前 the area in front of a station
44 たおれます 倒れます fall down
45 にし 西 west
46 ほう direction
47 さんのみや 三宮 name of a place in Kobe

 

Part 2: Grammar

  1. V-formいます

Vて-form いますexpresses the state which results as a consequence of the action expressed by the verb.

1) N がVて-formいます

窓が割れています。(*)

The window is broken.

電気がついています。

The light is on.

As in the examples above, when the speaker describes the state he/she sees in front of him/her as it is, the subject of the action is indicated with が. Example (*) shows that “the window was broken in the past and at present its consequence remains (=it is broken)”. Verbs which are used with this expression are intransitive verbs, and most of them indicate an instantaneous act or action. Examples of such verbs include こわれます、きえます、あきます、こみますetc.

When describing states in the past, Vて-formいました is used.

けさは道が込んでいました。

The road was crowded this morning.

2) N はV-てformいます

When the subject of an act or action is taken up as a topic, it is indicated with は.

このいすは壊れています。

This chair is broken.

  1. V-form しまいました/しまいます

Vて-form しまいましたis an expression which emphasizes that an action or event has been completed.

シュミットさんが持って来たワインは全部飲んでしまいました。

We drank all the wine that Mr. Schmidt brought.

漢字の宿題はもうやってしまいました。

I have done my Kanji homework already.

Though V ましたcan also indicate the completion of an action, the use of Vて-form しまいました emphasizes the actual completion of the action. Therefore, the latter is often accompanied by such adverbs asもう and/or ぜんぶ .

Also, Vて-formしまいますexpresses that the speaker will complete an action in the future.

昼ごはんまでにレポートを書いてしまいます。

I intend to finish writing the report by lunch time.

  1. V-form しまいました

This expression conveys the speaker’s embarrassment or regret in a difficult situation.

パスポートをなくしてしまいました。

I lost my passport.

パソコンが故障してしまいました。

My personal computer’s broken.

Though the fact of losing one’s passport or the trouble with the computer can be expressed with なくしましたor 故障しました, these sentences above add the speaker’s feeling of regret or embarrassment about the fact.

  1. ありました

[かばん]がありました。

I’ve found [the bag].

ありましたhere is used to indicate that the speaker has found the bag, not to indicate that it existed some place in the past.

  1. どこかで/どこかに

In the examples shown in Lesson 13, you learned へin どこかへand をin なにかをcould be omitted. However, でin どこかでor にinどこかに cannot be omitted.

どこかで財布をなくしてしまいました。

I’ve lost my wallet somewhere.

どこかに電話がありませんか。

Is there a pay phone somewhere nearby?

The above is all knowledge about Vocabulary and Grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 29. To see other lessons, please click here.

 

 

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