Minna no Nihongo lesson 27 – All vocabulary and grammar with explanation

Minna no Nihongo Lesson 27 will introduce you to 54 new words and 7 new grammar structures of Japanese

Vocabulary and grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 27

  • Part 1: Vocabulary
  • Part 2: Grammar

Part 1: Vocabulary

Listed below are 54 new words that appear in lesson 27. Let’s review these words before learning grammar.

NO WORD KANJI MEANING
1 かいます 飼います keep (a pet), raise (an animal)
2 たてます 建てます build
3 はしります[みちを~] 走ります[道を~] run, drive (along a road)
4 とります[やすみを~] 取ります[休みを~] take (a holiday)
5 みえます[やまが~] 見えます[山が~] (a mountain) can be seen
6 きこえます[おとが~] 聞こえます[音が~] (a sound) can be heard
7 できます[くうこうが~] [空港が~] (an airport) be made, be completed, come into existence
8 ひらきます[きょうしつを~] 開きます[教室を~] set up (a class), open, hold
9 ペット pet
10 とり bird
11 こえ voice
12 なみ wave
13 はなび 花火 fireworks
14 けしき 景色 scenery, view
15 ひるま 昼間 daytime
16 むかし old days, ancient times
17 どうぐ 道具 tool, instrument, equipment
18 じどうはんばいき 自動販売機 vending machine
19 つうしんはんばい 通信販売 mail order, mail-order sales
20 クリーニング (dry) cleaning, laundry
21 マンション condominium, apartment house
22 だいどころ 台所 kitchen
23 ~きょうしつ ~教室 ~ class
24 パーティールーム party room
25 ~ご ~後 after ~ (duration of time)
26 ~しか only ~ (used with negatives)
27 ほかの other
28 はっきり clearly
29 ほとんど almost all (in affirmative sentences), hardly, scarcely (in negative sentences)
30 かんさいくうこう 関西空港 Kansai International Airport
31 あきはばら 秋葉原 name of a shopping district in Tokyo with many electrical stores
32 いず 伊豆 peninsula in Shizuoka Prefecture
33 にちようだいく 日曜大工 Sunday carpenter
34 ほんだな 本棚 bookshelf
35 ゆめ dream
36 いつか someday, sometime
37 いえ house, home
38 すばらしい marvelous, wonderful
39 こどもたち 子どもたち children
40 だいすき[な] 大好き[な] like very much
41 まんが 漫画 comics
42 しゅじんこう 主人公 hero, heroine
43 かたち shape
44 ロボット robot
45 ふしぎ[な] 不思議[な] fantastic, mysterious
46 ポケット pocket
47 たとえば 例えば for example
48 つけます 付けます attach, put on
49 じゆうに 自由に freely
50 そら sky
51 とびます 飛びます fly
52 じぶん 自分 oneself
53 しょうらい 将来 future
54 ドラえもん name of a cartoon character

 

Part 2: Grammar

  1. Potential verbs

Potential verbs
polite form plain form
I かきます

かいます

かけます

かえます

かける

かえる

II たべます たべられます たべられる
III きます

します

こられます

できます

こられる

できる

 

All potential verbs are Group II verbs; they conjugate into the dictionary form, ない-form, て-form, etc.

eg. かける、かけ(ない)、かけて

わかる, which includes the meaning of possibility itself, does not change into わかれる.

  1. Potential verb sentences

1) Potential verbs express not actions but states. The object of transitive verbs are indicated by the particle を. When they become potential verbs, however, their objects are usually indicated by the particle が.

わたしは日本語を話します。

I speak Japanese.

わたしは日本語が話せます。

I can speak Japanese.

No particles change except for を.

一人で病院へ行けますか。

Can you go to the hospital alone?

田中さんに会えませんでした。

I could not see Mr. Tanaka.

2) Potential verbs have two uses: to express a person’s ability to do something and to express the possibility of an action in a certain situation.

ミラーさんは漢字が読めます。

Mr. Miller can read Kanji.

この銀行でドルが換えられます。

You can change dollars at this bank.

  1. 見えます and 聞こえます.

The potential verb forみます is みられますand that forききます isきけます. They indicate that one’s intention of seeing or listening can be realized. みえますindicates that a certain object comes into one’s sight and きこえますthat a sound reaches one’s ears independent of one’s will. In sentences using みえますandきこえます , objects to be seen or heard become the objects of the sentence and are indicated by が.

新宿でいま黒沢の映画が見られます。

You can now see Kurosawa’s movies in Shinjuku.

新幹線から富士山が見えます。

Mt. Fuji can be seen from the Shinkansen.

電話で天気予報が聞けます。

You can hear the weather forecast by phone.

ラジオの音がが聞こえます。

The sound of a radio can be heard.

  1. できます

The verb that you learn here means “come into being”, ‘come up”, “be completed”, “be finished”, “be made”, etc.

駅の前に大きいスーパーができました。

A big supermarket has been completed in front of the station.

時計の修理はいつできますか。

When can you fix this watch?

1) では/には/へは/からは/までは、etc.

はis used to highlight a noun as a topic, and as you learned in Lesson 10, 17 and 26, when がorを follows the noun, it is replaced byは . When other particles (e.g.で、に、へ、 etc.) follow the noun, はis placed after them.

わたしの学校にはアメリカ人の先生がいます。

In my school there is an American teacher.

わたしの学校では中国語が習えます。

In my school we can learn the Chinese language.

2) はused to make contrasts

きのうは山が見えましたが、きょうは見えません。

Yesterday we could see mountains, but not today.

ワインは飲みますが、ビールは飲みません。

I drink wine, but not beer.

京都へは行きますが、大阪へは行きません。

I will go to Tokyo, but not to Osaka.

6.

Like the usage ofは explained above, もreplaces をor が, but follows other particles. In the case of the particleへ , however, it can be omitted.

クララさんは英語が話せます。フランス語も話せます。

Klara can speak English. She can speak French, too.

去年アメリカへ行きました。メキシコ[へ]も行きました。

I went to America last year. I went to Mexico, too.

わたしの部屋から海が見えます。弟の部屋からも見えます。

The sea can be seen from my room, and also from my brother’s room.

  1. しか

しかis attached to nouns, quantifiers, etc., and is always used with negative predicates. It highlights the words, makes limitations and negates everything except the thing expressed by the word. It replacesが orを, but follows other particles. しかhas a negative nuance, while だけhas a positive one.

ローマ字しか書けません。

I cannot write anything but Roman letters.

ローマ字だけ書けます。

I can only write Roman letters.

The above is all knowledge about Vocabulary and Grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 27. To see other lessons, please click here.

 

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