Minna no Nihongo lesson 24 – All vocabulary and grammar with explanation

Minna no Nihongo Lesson 24 will introduce you to 19 new words and 4 new grammar structures of Japanese

Vocabulary and grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 24

  • Part 1: Vocabulary
  • Part 2: Grammar

Part 1: Vocabulary

Listed below are 19 new words that appear in lesson 24. Let’s review these words before learning grammar.

NO WORD KANJI MEANING
1 くれます give (me)
2 つれていきます 連れて行きます take (someone)
3 つれてきます 連れて来ます bring (someone)
4 おくります[ひとを~] 送ります[人を~] escort (someone), go with
5 しょうかいします 紹介します introduce
6 あんないします 案内します show around, show the way
7 せつめいします 説明します explain
8 いれます[コーヒーを] make (coffee)
9 おじいさん/おじいちゃん grandfather, old man
10 おばあさん/おばあちゃん grandmother, old woman
11 じゅんび[~します] 準備[~します] preparation (prepare)
12 いみ 意味 meaning
13 [お]かし [お]菓子 sweets, snacks
14 ぜんぶ 全部 all
15 じぶんで 自分で by oneself
16 ほかに besides
17 ワゴンしゃ ワゴン車 station wagon
18 [お]べんとう [お]弁当 box lunch
19 ははのひ 母の日 Mother’s Day

 

Part 2: Grammar

  1. くれます

You learned that あげますmeans “give” in Lesson 7. This verb cannot be used when somebody else gives something to the speaker or the speaker’s family, etc. (x さとうさんはわたしにクリスマスカードをあげました). In this caseくれます is used.

わたしは佐藤さんに花をあげました。

I gave flowers to Ms. Sato.

佐藤さんはわたしにクリスマスカードをくれました。

Ms. Sato gave me a Christmas card.

佐藤さんは妹にお菓子をくれました。

Ms. Sato gave candies to my younger sister.

2.

 

V-form

 

あげます

もらいます

くれます

 

あげます, もらいますand くれますare also used to refer to the giving and receiving of actions as well as those of things. They indicate who is doing that act for whom, while also expressing a sense of goodwill or gratitude. In this case, the act is expressed by the て-form.

1) Vて-formあげます

Vて-formあげます indicates that one does something for somebody with a sense of goodwill.

わたしは木村さんに本を貸してあげました。

I lent Ms. Kimura a book.

When the speaker is the actor and the listener is the receiver of the act, this expression could give the impression that the speaker is being patronizing. You are, therefore, advised to avoid using this expression directly to someone whom you do not know very well or who is senior or superior to you. You may use it to someone with whom you have a very close, friendly relationship. So, when you offer assistance to someone who is not very close, Vます-form ましょうか (see Lesson 14,6) is used.

タクシーを呼びましょうか。

Shall I call a taxi for you?

手伝いましょうか。

May I help you?

2) Vて-formもらいます

わたしは山田さんに図書館の電話番号を教えてもらいました。

Mr. Yamada told me the telephone number of the library.

This expression conveys a sense of gratitude on the part of those who receive a favor.

3) Vて-formくれます

母は[わたし]にセーターを送ってくれました。

My mother sent me a sweater.

Like Vて-formもらいます, this expression also conveys a sense of gratitude on the part of those who receive a favor. The difference is that Vて-formもらいます has the receiver of the act as the subject of the sentence, while Vて-formくれます has the actor as the subject of the sentence, implying the actor (the subject) voluntarily takes the action. The receiver of the act in the latter case is often the speaker and わたし(the receiver) に is often omitted.

  1. N (person) V

すてきなネクタイですね。

ええ、佐藤さんがくれました。

That’s a nice tie, isn’t it?

Yes. Ms. Sato gave it to me.

You present a topic, saying すてきなネクタイですね. Responding to it, your partner in conversation gives a piece of information on the topic which is unknown to you, [このネクタイは]さとうさんがくれました. The subject of the sentence giving new information is indicated by が.

  1. Interrogative V

You learned that when the subject is questioned, it is indicated byが in あります/いますsentences (Lesson 10) and adjective sentences (Lesson 12). This is also the case for verb sentences.

だれが手伝いに行きますか。

カリナさんが行きます。

Who will go to give him a hand?

Ms. Karina will.

The above is all knowledge about Vocabulary and Grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 24. To see other lessons, please click here.

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