Minna no Nihongo lesson 23 – All vocabulary and grammar with explanation

Minna no Nihongo Lesson 23 will introduce you to 34 new words and 5 new grammar structures of Japanese

Vocabulary and grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 23

  • Part 1: Vocabulary
  • Part 2: Grammar

Part 1: Vocabulary

Listed below are 34 new words that appear in lesson 23. Let’s review these words before learning grammar.

NO WORD KANJI MEANING
1 ききます[せんせいに~] 聞きます[先生に~] ask (the teacher)
2 まわします 回します turn
3 ひきます 引きます pull
4 かえます 変えます change
5 さわります[ドアに~] 触ります touch (a door)
6 でます[おつりが~] 出ます[お釣りが~] (change) come out
7 うごきます[とけいが~] 動きます[時計が~] (a watch) move, work
8 あるきます[みちを~] 歩きます[道を~] walk (along a road)
9 わたります[はしを~] 渡ります[橋を~] cross (a bridge)
10 きをつけます[くるまに~] 気をつけます[車に~] pay attention (to cars), take care
11 ひっこしします 引っ越しします move (house)
12 でんきや 電気屋 electric appliance store
13 ~や ~屋 ~ store, shop
14 サイズ size
15 おと sound
16 きかい 機械 machine
17 つまみ knob
18 こしょう(~します) 故障 breakdown (break down)
19 みち road, way
20 こうさてん 交差点 crossroad
21 しんごう 信号 traffic light
22 かど corner
23 はし bridge
24 ちゅうしゃじょう 駐車場 parking lot, car park
25 ~め ~目 the ~ th (indicating order)
26 [お]しょうがつ [お]正月 New Year’s Day
27 ごちそうさま[でした] That was delicious (said after eating or drinking)
28 たてもの 建物 building
29 がいこくじんとうろくしょう 外国人登録証 alien registration card
30 しょうとくたいし 聖徳太子 Prince Shotoku (574 – 622)
31 ほうりゅうじ 法隆寺 Horyuji Temple, a temple in Nara Prefecture built by Prince Shotoku at the beginning of the 7th century
32 げんきちゃ 元気茶 fictitious tea
33 ほんだえき 本田駅 fictitious station
34 としょかんまえ 図書館前 fictitious bus stop (in front of library)

 

Part 2: Grammar

V dictionary form

Vない-form

-adj (~い )

-adj

N

 

とき、~

 

 

When …, …

 

 

ときconnects two sentences and expresses the time when the state or action described in the main sentence exists or occurs. As shown in the table above, the forms of verbs, い-adjectives, な-adjectives and nouns connected to ときare the same as the forms when modifying nouns.

図書館で本を借りるとき、カードが要ります。

When you borrow books from the library, you need a card.

使い方がわからないとき、わたしに聞いてください。

When you don’t know how to use it, ask me.

体の調子が悪いとき、「元気茶」を飲みます。

When I’m not in good shape, I drink “Genki-cha”.

暇なとき、うちへ遊びに来ませんか。

Won’t you come to my place when you are free?

妻が病気のとき、会社を休みます。

When my wife is sick, I take a day off work.

若いとき、あまり勉強しませんでした。

When I was young, I did not study much.

子どものとき、よく川で泳ぎました。

I used to swim in a river when I was a child.

The tense of adjective sentences and noun sentences which modify ときis not affected by the tense of the main sentence.

2.

V dictionary form

V-form

とき、~

 

 

When the dictionary form of the predicate is put beforeとき it indicates the non-completion of the action, and when the た-form of the predicate is put before ときin indicates the completion of the action.

国へ帰るとき、かばんを買いました。(*)

I bought a bag when I went back to my country.

国へ帰ったとき、かばんを買いました。(**)

I bought a bag when I went back to my country.

In (*), かえるindicates that at the time being referred to the action had not been completed, that the speaker had not reached his/her country yet and that he/she bought a bag somewhere on his/her way there (Japan is included). In (**), かえったindicates that the action was completed and the speaker bought a bag after arriving in his/her country.

  1. V dictionary form と、~

…, then (inevitably) …

When expressing the situation where, as a result of a certain action, another action or matter inevitably happens, とis used to connect the sentences.

このボタンを押すと、お釣りが出ます。

Press this button, and the change will come out.

これを回すと、音が大きくなります。

Turn this, and the volume will go up.

右へ曲がると、郵便局があります。

Turn to the right, and you will find the post office.

Expressions of one’s will, hope, invitation or request cannot be used in the sentence which follows ~と.

X  時間があると、 映画を見に行きます (will)

映画を見に行きたいです(hope)

映画を見に行きませんか (invitation)

ちょっと手伝ってください (request)

 

In those cases, the conditional expression ~たら is used instead of ~と (see Lesson 25).

  1. N が adjective / V

You learned in Lesson 14 that the subject is indicated by がwhen describing a natural phenomenon. When describing a state or a scene as it is, the subject is also indicated by が.

音が小さいです。

The volume is low.

電気が明るくなります。

The light became brighter.

このボタンを押すと、切符が出ます。

Press this button, and a ticket will come out.

  1. N (place) V (verb of movement)

The particle をis used to denote the place where a person or a thing passes. The verbs of movement such as さんぽします, わたります, あるきます, etc. are used in this pattern.

公園を散歩します。

I take a walk in the park.

道を渡ります。

I cross the road.

交差点を右へ曲がります。

I turn to the right at the intersection.

The above is all knowledge about Vocabulary and Grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 23. To see other lessons, please click here.

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