Minna no Nihongo lesson 22 – All vocabulary and grammar with explanation

Minna no Nihongo Lesson 22 will introduce you to 24 new words and 4 new grammar structures of Japanese

Vocabulary and grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 22

  • Part 1: Vocabulary
  • Part 2: Grammar

Part 1: Vocabulary

Listed below are 24 new words that appear in lesson 22. Let’s review these words before learning grammar.

NO WORD KANJI MEANING
1 きます[シャツを~] 着ます put on (a shirt, etc.)
2 はきます[くつを~] [靴を~] put on (shoes, trousers, etc.)
3 かぶります[ぼうし~] [帽子を~] put on (a hat, etc.)
4 かけます[めがねを~] [眼鏡を~] put on (glasses)
5 うまれます 生まれます be born
6 コート coat
7 スーツ suit
8 セーター sweater
9 ぼうし 帽子 hat, cap
10 めがね 眼鏡 glasses
11 よく often
12 おめでとうございます Congratulations (used on birthdays, at weddings, New Year’s Day, etc.)
13 こちら this (polite equivalent of これ)
14 やちん 家賃 house rent
15 うーん Let me see
16 ダイニングキチン kitchen with a dining area
17 わしつ 和室 Japanese-style room
18 おしいれ 押入れ Japanese-style closet
19 ふとん 布団 Japanese-style mattress and quilt
20 アパート apartment
21 パリ Paris
22 ばんりのちょうじょう 万里の長城 the Great Wall of China
23 よかかいはつセンター 余暇開発センター Center for Developing Leisure Activities
24 レジャーはくしょ レジャー白書 white paper on leisure

 

Part 2: Grammar

  1. Noun modification

You learned how to modify nouns in Lesson 2 and Lesson 8.

ミラーさんのうち               Mr. Miller’s house (Lesson 2)

新しいうち                            a new house (Lesson 8)

きれいなうち                        a beautiful house (Lesson 8)

In Japanese, whatever modifies a word, whether it’s a word or a sentence, it always comes before the word to be modified. Here you learn another way to modify nouns.

  1. Noun modification by sentences

1) The predicate of the sentence which modifies a noun is in the plain form. In the case of な-adjective sentences, ~だ becomes ~な. In the case of noun sentences ~だ becomes ~の.

京都へ 行く人

行かない人

行った人

行かなかった人

 

a person

 

who goes

who does not go

who went

who did not go

 

to Kyoto

 

背が高くて、髪が黒い人

親切で、きれいな人

65 歳の人

a person who is tall and has black hair

a person who is kind and pretty

a person who is 65 years old.

 

2) Nouns, which are various elements of the sentence, are picked out of it and can be modified by it.

わたしは先週映画を見ました  →  わたしが先週見た映画

I saw a movie last week  →  the movie that I saw last week

ワンさんは病院で働いています  →  ワンさんが働いている病院

Mr. Wang works at a hospital  →  the hospital where Mr. Wang works

わたしはあした友達に会います  →  わたしがあした会う友達

I will meet a friend tomorrow  →  the friend whom I will meet tomorrow

When the nouns in three sentences above are modified, the particle を, でandに attached to them respectively are unnecessary.

3) The noun modified by a sentence (“the house where Mr. Miller lived” in the example sentences below) can be used in various parts of a sentence.

これはミラーさんが住んでいたうちです。

This is the house where Mr. Miller lived.

ミラーさんが住んでいたうちは古いです。

The house where Mr. Miller lived is old.

ミラーさんが住んでいたうちを買いました。

I bought the house where Mr. Miller lived.

わたしはミラーさんが住んでいたうちが好きです。

I like the house where Mr. Miller lived.

ミラーさんが住んでいたうちに猫がいました。

There was a cat in the house where Mr. Miller lived.

ミラーさんが住んでいたうちへ行ったことがあります。

I have been to the house where Mr. Miller lived.

  1. N

When a sentence modifies a noun, the subject in the sentence is indicated by が.

ミラーさんはケーキを作りました  →  これはミラーさんが作ったケーキです。

Mr. Miller baked a cake.  →  This is the cake which Mr. Miller baked.

わたしはカリナさんがかいた絵が好きです。

I like the picture that Ms. Karina drew.

[あなたは]彼が生まれた所を知っていますか。

Do you know the place where he was born?

  1. V dictionary form 時間/約束/用事

When expressing the time for doing some activity, put the dictionary form of the action before じかん.

わたしは朝ごはんを食べる時間がありません。

I have no time to eat breakfast.

You can also say the content of the arrangement (appointment), etc., by putting the dictionary form of that action before やくそく, etc.

わたしは友達と映画を見る約束があります。

I have an arrangement to see a movie with a friend of mine.

きょうは市役所へ行く用事があります。

I have something to do at the city hall today.

The above is all knowledge about Vocabulary and Grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 22. To see other lessons, please click here.

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