Minna no Nihongo lesson 21 – All vocabulary and grammar with explanation

Minna no Nihongo Lesson 21 will introduce you to 38 new words and 7 new grammar structures of Japanese

Vocabulary and grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 21

Part 1: Vocabulary

Part 2: Grammar

Part 1: Vocabulary

Listed below are 38 new words that appear in lesson 21. Let’s review these words before learning grammar.

1 おもいます 思います think
2 いいます 言います say
3 たります 足ります be enough, be sufficient
4 かちます 勝ちます win
5 まけます 負けます lose, be beaten
6 あります[おまつりが~] [お祭りが~] (a festival) be held, take place
7 やくにたちます 役に立ちます be useful
8 むだ[な] wasteful
9 ふべん[な] 不便[な] inconvenient
10 おなじ 同じ the same
11 すごい awful, great (expresses astonishment or admiration)
12 しゅしょう 首相 prime minister
13 だいとうりょう 大統領 president
14 せいじ 政治 politics
15 ニュース news
16 スピーチ[をします] speech (make a speech)
17 しあい 試合 game, match
18 アルバイト[をします] side job (work part time)
19 いけん 意見 opinion
20 [お]はなし[をします] [お]話 talk, speech, story (talk, tell a story)
21 ユーモア humor
22 むだ waste
23 デザイン design
24 こうつう 交通 transportation, traffic
25 ラッシュ rush hour
26 さいきん 最近 recently, these days
27 たぶん probably, perhaps, maybe
28 きっと surely
29 ほんとうに really
30 そんなに not so much (used with negatives)
31 ~について about ~, concerning ~
32 しかたがありません There is no other choice / It can’t be helped
33 しばらくですね It’s been a long time (since I last saw you) / Long time no see
34 ~でものみませんか ~でも飲みませんか How about drinking ~ or something?
35 みないと 見ないと I’ve got to watch it
36 もちろん of course
37 カンガルー kangaroo
38 キャプテン・クック Captain James Cook (1728 – 79)


Part 2: Grammar

  1. Plain form と思います

I think that …

The ideas or information expressed with おもいますare indicated by the particle と.

1) When expressing conjecture


I think it will rain tomorrow.


I think Teresa has already gone to bed.

When the content of conjecture is negative in nature, make the sentence before とnegative.



Does Mr. Miller know this news?

No, I don’t think he does.

2) When expressing one’s opinion


I think that prices are high in Japan.

The expression ~についてどうおもいますかis used to ask someone’s opinion on something by usingおもいます.と is not necessary afterどう.



What do you think of the new airport?

I think that it is clean but the access to it is not easy.

Agreement or disagreement with other people’s opinions can be expressed as follows.




A: Fax machines are convenient, aren’t they?

B: I think so, too.
C: I don’t think so.

  1. “S” / Plain formと言います

say …

The content expressed withいいます is indicated by the particle と.

1) When quoting directly what someone says or said, repeat exactly what they say as in the following structure.


We say “Good night” before going to bed.


Mr. Miller said “I will go to Tokyo on a business trip next week”.

2) When quoting indirectly what someone says or said, the plain form is used before と. The tense of the quoted sentence is not affected by the tense of the main sentence.


Mr. Miller said that he would go to Tokyo on a business trip next week.

  1. Plain form でしょう

な-adj / N:~

When the speaker expects that the listener has some knowledge on the topic being discussed and that the listener will agree with the speaker’s view,でしょう is said with a rising intonation to confirm the listener’s agreement.



You are going to the party tomorrow, aren’t you?

Yes, I am.



It was cold in Hokkaido, wasn’t it?

No, it wasn’t that cold.

  1. N1 (place) N2があります

When N2 expresses such events as a party, concert, festival, incident, disaster and so on, ありますmeans “to take place” or “to be held”.


A football game between Japan and Brazil will be held in Tokyo.

  1. N (occasion)

When some action takes place on a certain occasion, that occasion is followed by で.


Did you give your opinion at the meeting?

  1. N でもV

でもis used to give an example out of things of the same kind when one encourages or advises someone to do something or when one makes a suggestion.


Shall we drink beer or something?

  1. Vない-formないと ….

This expression is made by omitting いけませんfrom Vない-formないといけません. V-ないformないといけません is similar to Vない-formなければなりませんwhich you learned in Lesson 17.


I have to go home now.

The above is all knowledge about Vocabulary and Grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 21. To see other lessons, please click here.


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