Minna no Nihongo lesson 21 – All vocabulary and grammar with explanation

Minna no Nihongo Lesson 21 will introduce you to 38 new words and 7 new grammar structures of Japanese

Vocabulary and grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 21

Part 1: Vocabulary

Part 2: Grammar

Part 1: Vocabulary

Listed below are 38 new words that appear in lesson 21. Let’s review these words before learning grammar.

NO WORD KANJI MEANING
1 おもいます 思います think
2 いいます 言います say
3 たります 足ります be enough, be sufficient
4 かちます 勝ちます win
5 まけます 負けます lose, be beaten
6 あります[おまつりが~] [お祭りが~] (a festival) be held, take place
7 やくにたちます 役に立ちます be useful
8 むだ[な] wasteful
9 ふべん[な] 不便[な] inconvenient
10 おなじ 同じ the same
11 すごい awful, great (expresses astonishment or admiration)
12 しゅしょう 首相 prime minister
13 だいとうりょう 大統領 president
14 せいじ 政治 politics
15 ニュース news
16 スピーチ[をします] speech (make a speech)
17 しあい 試合 game, match
18 アルバイト[をします] side job (work part time)
19 いけん 意見 opinion
20 [お]はなし[をします] [お]話 talk, speech, story (talk, tell a story)
21 ユーモア humor
22 むだ waste
23 デザイン design
24 こうつう 交通 transportation, traffic
25 ラッシュ rush hour
26 さいきん 最近 recently, these days
27 たぶん probably, perhaps, maybe
28 きっと surely
29 ほんとうに really
30 そんなに not so much (used with negatives)
31 ~について about ~, concerning ~
32 しかたがありません There is no other choice / It can’t be helped
33 しばらくですね It’s been a long time (since I last saw you) / Long time no see
34 ~でものみませんか ~でも飲みませんか How about drinking ~ or something?
35 みないと 見ないと I’ve got to watch it
36 もちろん of course
37 カンガルー kangaroo
38 キャプテン・クック Captain James Cook (1728 – 79)

 

Part 2: Grammar

  1. Plain form と思います

I think that …

The ideas or information expressed with おもいますare indicated by the particle と.

1) When expressing conjecture

あした雨が降ると思います。

I think it will rain tomorrow.

テレサちゃんはもう寝たと思います。

I think Teresa has already gone to bed.

When the content of conjecture is negative in nature, make the sentence before とnegative.

ミラーさんはこのニュースを知っていますか。

いいえ、たぶん知らないと思います。

Does Mr. Miller know this news?

No, I don’t think he does.

2) When expressing one’s opinion

日本は物価が高いと思います。

I think that prices are high in Japan.

The expression ~についてどうおもいますかis used to ask someone’s opinion on something by usingおもいます.と is not necessary afterどう.

新しい空港についてどう思いますか。

きれいですが、ちょっと交通が不便だと思います。

What do you think of the new airport?

I think that it is clean but the access to it is not easy.

Agreement or disagreement with other people’s opinions can be expressed as follows.

A:ファクスは便利ですね。

B:わたしもそう思います。

C:わたしはそう[は]思いません。

A: Fax machines are convenient, aren’t they?

B: I think so, too.
C: I don’t think so.

  1. “S” / Plain formと言います

say …

The content expressed withいいます is indicated by the particle と.

1) When quoting directly what someone says or said, repeat exactly what they say as in the following structure.

寝る前に「お休みなさい」と言います。

We say “Good night” before going to bed.

ミラーさんは「来週東京へ出張します」と言いました。

Mr. Miller said “I will go to Tokyo on a business trip next week”.

2) When quoting indirectly what someone says or said, the plain form is used before と. The tense of the quoted sentence is not affected by the tense of the main sentence.

ミラーさんは来週東京へ出張すると言いました。

Mr. Miller said that he would go to Tokyo on a business trip next week.

  1. Plain form でしょう

な-adj / N:~

When the speaker expects that the listener has some knowledge on the topic being discussed and that the listener will agree with the speaker’s view,でしょう is said with a rising intonation to confirm the listener’s agreement.

あしたパーティーに行くでしょう?

ええ、行きます。

You are going to the party tomorrow, aren’t you?

Yes, I am.

北海道は寒かったでしょう?

いいえ、そんなに寒くなったです。

It was cold in Hokkaido, wasn’t it?

No, it wasn’t that cold.

  1. N1 (place) N2があります

When N2 expresses such events as a party, concert, festival, incident, disaster and so on, ありますmeans “to take place” or “to be held”.

東京で日本とブラジルのサッカーの試合があります。

A football game between Japan and Brazil will be held in Tokyo.

  1. N (occasion)

When some action takes place on a certain occasion, that occasion is followed by で.

会議で何か意見を言いましたか。

Did you give your opinion at the meeting?

  1. N でもV

でもis used to give an example out of things of the same kind when one encourages or advises someone to do something or when one makes a suggestion.

ちょっとビールでも飲みませんか。

Shall we drink beer or something?

  1. Vない-formないと ….

This expression is made by omitting いけませんfrom Vない-formないといけません. V-ないformないといけません is similar to Vない-formなければなりませんwhich you learned in Lesson 17.

もう帰らないと。

I have to go home now.

The above is all knowledge about Vocabulary and Grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 21. To see other lessons, please click here.

 

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