Minna no Nihongo lesson 20 – All vocabulary and grammar with explanation

Minna no Nihongo Lesson 20 will introduce you to 29 new words and 3 new grammar structures of Japanese

Vocabulary and grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 20

  • Part 1: Vocabulary
  • Part 2: Grammar

Part 1: Vocabulary

Listed below are 29 new words that appear in lesson 20. Let’s review these words before learning grammar.

NO WORD KANJI MEANING
1 いります[ビザが~] 要ります need, require (a visa)
2 しらべます 調べます check, investigate
3 なおします 直します repair, correct
4 しゅうりします 修理します repair
5 でんわします 電話します phone
6 ぼく I (an informal equivalent of わたしused by men)
7 きみ you (an informal equivalent ofあなた used by men)
8 ~くん ~君 Mr. (an informal equivalent of~さん used by men)
9 うん yes (an informal equivalent ofはい)
10 ううん no (an informal equivalent ofいいえ)
11 サラリーマン salaried worker, office worker
12 ことば word, language
13 ぶっか 物価 commodity prices
14 きもの 着物 kimono (traditional Japanese attire)
15 ビザ visa
16 はじめ 初め the beginning
17 おわり 終わり the end
18 こっち this way, this place (an informal equivalent ofこちら)
19 そっち that way, that place (an informal equivalent of そちら)
20 あっち that way, that place over there (an informal equivalent ofあちら)
21 どっち which one (between two things), which way, where (an informal equivalent ofどちら)
22 このあいだ この間 the other day, lately, recently
23 みんなで all together
24 ~けど ~, but (an informal equivalent ofが)
25 くにへかえるの 国へ帰るの Are you going back to your country?
26 どうするの What will you do?
27 どうしようかな What shall I do?
28 よかったら if you like
29 いろいろ various

 

Part 2: Grammar

  1. Polite style and plain style

Japanese language has two styles of speech: polite style and plain style.

polite style

plain style

あした東京へ行きます。

I will go to Tokyo tomorrow.

あした東京へ行く。

I will go to Tokyo tomorrow.

毎日忙しいです。

I am busy every day.

毎日忙しい。

I am busy every day.

相撲が好きです。

I like sumo.

相撲が好きだ。

I like sumo.

富士山に登りたいです。

I want to climb Mt. Fuji.

富士山に登りたい。

I want to climb Mt. Fuji.

ドイツへ行ったことがありません。

I have never been to Germany.

ドイツへ行ったことがない。

I have never been to Germany.

 

The predicates which are used in polite style sentences and accompanied by either ですor ますare called the polite form, while the predicates used in plain style sentences are called the plain form.

  1. Proper use of the polite style or the plain style

1) The polite style can be used at anytime in any place and to anybody. Therefore, the polite style is used most commonly in daily conversation between adults who are not close friends. It is used when talking to a person one has met for the first time, to one’s superiors, or even to persons in a similar age group to whom one is not very close. The polite style may be chosen when one talks to a person who is younger or lower in rank yet not so close. The plain style is used when talking to one’s close friends, colleagues and family members.

Note that you need to be careful about how much politeness is needed, basing this on the age of your conversation partner and your type of relationship. If the plain style is used inappropriately, you could sound rough and impolite, so when you cannot tell the situation it is safer to use the polite style.

2) The plain style is commonly used in written work. Newspapers, books, theses and diaries are all written in the plain style. Most letters are written in the polite style.

  1. Conversation in the plain style

1) Questions in the plain style generally omit the particle か, which denotes a question, and end with a rising intonation.

コーヒーを飲む?                Do you want a coffee?

うん、飲む。                        Yes, I do.

2) In noun and な-adjective questions, だ, which is the plain form of です, is omitted. In an answer in the affirmative, ending the sentence with だcould sound too rough. You can either omit だor add some sentence final particle to soften the tone of the sentence. Women seldom use だ.

今晩暇?                                              Are you free tonight? (used by both men and women)

うん、暇/暇だ/暇だよ。             Yes, I am. (used by men)

うん、暇/暇よ。                              Yes, I am. (used by women)

ううん、暇じゃない。                      No, I am not. (used by both men and women)

3) In the plain style, certain particles are often omitted if the meaning of the sentence is evident from the context.

ごはん[を]食べる?

Will you take a meal?

あした京都[へ]行かない?

Won’t you come to Kyoto tomorrow with me?

このりんご[は]おいしいね。

This apple is tasty, isn’t it?

そこにはさみ[が]ある?

Is there a pair of scissors there?

で, に, から, まで, と, etc., however, are not omitted because the meaning of the sentence may not be clear without them.

4) In the plain style, いof Vて-form いるis also often dropped.

辞書、持って[い]る?                      Do you have a dictionary?

うん、持って[い]る。                      Yes, I do.

ううん、持って[い]ない。              No, I don’t.

5) けど

けどhas the same function as が, which is used to connect two sentences (see Lesson 8, 7 and Lesson 14, 7). It is often used in conversations.

このカレーライス[は]おいしい?

うん、辛いけど、おいしい。

Is that curry and rice tasty?

Yes, it’s hot but tasty.

相撲のチケット[が]あるけど、いっしょに行かない?

いいね。

I have tickets for sumo. Won’t you come with me?

Sure.

The above is all knowledge about Vocabulary and Grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 20. To see other lessons, please click here.

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