Minna no Nihongo lesson 19 – All vocabulary and grammar with explanation

Minna no Nihongo Lesson 19 will introduce you to 31 new words and 5 new grammar structures of Japanese

Vocabulary and grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 19

  • Part 1: Vocabulary
  • Part 2: Grammar

Part 1: Vocabulary

Listed below are 31 new words that appear in lesson 19. Let’s review these words before learning grammar.

NO WORD KANJI MEANING
1 のぼります[やまに~] 登ります[山に~] climb (a mountain)
2 とまります[ホテルに~] 泊まります stay (at a hotel)
3 そうじします 掃除します clean (a room)
4 せんたくします 洗濯します wash (clothes)
5 れんしゅうします 練習します practice
6 なります become
7 ねむい 眠い sleepy
8 つよい 強い strong
9 よわい 弱い weak
10 ちょうしがいい 調子がいい be in good condition
11 ちょうしがわるい 調子が悪い be in bad condition
12 ちょうし 調子 condition
13 ゴルフ[をします] golf (play golf)
14 すもう 相撲 sumo wrestling
15 パチンコ[をします] pinball game (play pachinko)
16 おちゃ お茶 tea ceremony
17 day, date
18 いちど 一度 once
19 いちども 一度も not once, never (used with negatives)
20 だんだん gradually
21 もうすぐ soon
22 おかげさまで Thank you (used when expressing gratitude for help received)
23 かんぱい 乾杯 Bottoms up / Cheers!
24 じつは 実は Actually, to tell the truth
25 ダイエット[をします] diet (go on a diet)
26 なんかいも 何回も many times
27 しかし but, however
28 むり[な] 無理[な] excessive, impossible
29 からだにいい 体にいい good for one’s health
30 ケーキ cake
31 かつしかほくさい 葛飾北斎 famous Edo period wood block artist and painter (1760 – 1849)

 

Part 2: Grammar

  1. Verb -form

In this lesson you learn the た-form. How to make the た-form is shown below.

The た-form is made by changing てand でof the て-form into たand だrespectively.

て-form た-form
Group I かいて

のんで

かいた

のんだ

Group II たべて たべた
Group III きて

して

きた

した

 

  1. V-formことがあります

have the experience of V-ing

This sentence pattern is used to describe what one has experienced in the past. This is basically the same sentence as わたしはNがあります which you learned in Lesson 9. The content of one’s experience is expressed by the nominalized phrase Vた-form こと.

馬に乗ったことがあります。

I have ridden a horse.

Note that it is, therefore, different from a sentence which merely states the fact that one did something at a certain time in the past.

去年北海道で馬に乗りました。

I rode a horse in Hokkaido last year.

  1. V-form, V-form りします

V … and V …, and so on

You learned an expression for referring to a few things and persons among many (~や~ [ など ] ) in Lesson 10. The sentences learned here are used in referring to some actions among many other actions. The tense of this sentence pattern is shown at the end of the sentence.

日曜日はテニスをしたり、映画を見たりします。

On Sundays, I play tennis, see a movie and so on.

日曜日はテニスをしたり、映画を見たりしました。(*)

Last Sunday, I played tennis, saw a movie and so on.

[Note] Make sure that you don’t confuse the meaning of this sentence pattern with that of the て-form sentence below which you learned in Lesson 16.

日曜日テニスをして、映画を見ました。(**)

Last Sunday I played tennis and then saw a movie.

In (**) it is clear that seeing a movie took place after playing tennis. In (*) there is no time relation between the two activities. These activities are mentioned as example activities among the activities done on Sunday to imply that one did other activities besides them. And it is not natural that actions usually done by everybody every day such as getting up in the morning, taking meals, going to bed at night, etc., are mentioned.

4.

-adj () → ~く

-adj [] 

N

なります

 

become …

 

 

なりますmeans “become” and indicates changes in a state or condition.

寒い              寒くなります                  get cold

元気[な]      元気になります              get well

25歳              25歳になります              become 25 years old

  1. そうですね

そうですねis used when you agree or sympathize with what your partner in conversation said. そうですかwith a falling intonation is a similar expression to this (see Lesson 2, 6). そうですかis, however, an expression of your conviction or exclamation after getting information which was unknown to you, whileそうですね is used to express your agreement or sympathy with your partner in conversation when he/she refers to something you agree with or already know.

寒くなりましたね。

そうですね。

It’s got cold, hasn’t it?

Yet, it has.

The above is all knowledge about Vocabulary and Grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 19. To see other lessons, please click here.

 

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