Minna no Nihongo lesson 18 – All vocabulary and grammar with explanation

Minna no Nihongo Lesson 18 will introduce you to 29 new words and 6 new grammar structures of Japanese

Vocabulary and grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 18

  • Part 1: Vocabulary
  • Part 2: Grammar

Part 1: Vocabulary

Listed below are 29 new words that appear in lesson 18. Let’s review these words before learning grammar.

NO WORD KANJI MEANING
1 できます be able to, can
2 あらいます 洗います wash
3 ひきます 弾きます play (stringed or keyboard instruments)
4 うたいます 歌います sing
5 あつめます 集めます collect, gather
6 すてます 捨てます throw away
7 かえます 換えます exchange, change
8 うんてんします 運転します drive
9 よやくします 予約します reserve, book
10 けんがくします 見学します visit some place for study
11 ピアノ piano
12 ~メートル ~ meter
13 こくさい 国際 international
14 げんきん 現金 cash
15 しゅみ 趣味 hobby
16 にっき 日記 diary
17 [お]いのり[をします] [お]祈り[~をします] prayer (pray)
18 かちょう 課長 section chief
19 ぶちょう 部長 department chief
20 しゃちょう 社長 president of a company
21 どうぶつ 動物 animal
22 うま horse
23 へえ Really! (used when expressing surprise)
24 それはおもしろいですね That must be interesting
25 なかなか not easily (used with negatives)
26 ぼくじょう 牧場 ranch, stock farm
27 ほんとうですか Really?
28 ぜひ by all means
29 ビートルズ the Beatles, famous British music group

 

Part 2: Grammar

  1. Verb dictionary form

This form is the basic form of a verb. Verbs are given in this form in the dictionary, hence the name. How to make the dictionary form is given below.

Group I In the verbs of this group, the last sound of ます-form is always in the い-line. Replace it with the sound in the う-line to make the dictionary form.
Group II Attach るto the ます-form.
Group III しますbecomes するand きますbecomes くる.

 

2.

N

V dictionary formこと

ができます

can …

 

できますis the verb which expresses ability or possibility. A noun and V dictionary form ことbefore がindicates the content of ability or possibility.

1) Noun

Nouns placed before がare mostly nouns which express actions such as driving a car, shopping, skiing, dancing, etc. Nouns such as にほんご, which is associated with the action はなす, or ピアノ, which is associated with the actionひく, can also be used here.

ミラーさんは日本語ができます。

Mr. Miller can speak Japanese.

雪がたくさん降りましたから、ことしはスキーができます。

It’s snowed a lot, so we can ski this year.

2) Verb

When a verb is used to describe ability or possibility, ことshould be attached to the dictionary form of the verb to make it a nominalized phrase and then ができますis put after that.

ミラーさんは漢字を読むことができます。

Mr. Miller can read Kanji.

カードで払うことができます。

You can pay by credit card.

わたしの趣味は

N

V dictionary formこと

です

My hobby is …

 

As shown in the sentences below, V dictionary form ことcan express the content of hobbies more concretely than the noun alone can do.

わたしの趣味は音楽です。

My hobby is music.

わたしの趣味は音楽を聞くことです。

My hobby is listening to the music.

V1 dictionary form

N

Quantifier (period)

まえに、V2

…, before …

 

1) Verb

This sentence pattern indicates that the action of V2 occurs before the action of V1 takes place. Even when the tense V2 is in the past tense or the future tense, V1 is always in the dictionary form.

日本へ来るまえに、日本語を勉強しました。

I studied Japanese before I came to Japan.

寝るまえに、本を読みます。

I read a book before I go to bed.

2) Noun

When まえにcomes after a noun, the particleの is put between the noun and まえに. Nouns before まえにare nouns which express actions or nouns which imply actions.

食事のまえに、手を洗います。

I wash my hands before eating.

3) Quantifier (period)

Whenまえに comes after a quantifier (period), the particleの is not necessary.

田中さんは1時間まえに、出かけました。

Mr. Tanaka left an hour ago.

  1. なかなか

Whenなかなか is accompanied by a negative expression, it means “not easily” or “not as expected”.

日本ではなかなか馬を見ることができません。

In Japan we can rarely see horses.

[Note] はof にほんではis attached to でto emphasize the location or area under discussion.

  1. ぜひ

ぜひis used with expressions of hope and request such as ほしいです, Vます-form たいですand Vて-form くださいand emphasizes the meaning of the expressions.

ぜひ北海道へ行きたいです。

I want to go to Hokkaido very much.

ぜひ遊びに来てください。

Please come to my place.

The above is all knowledge about Vocabulary and Grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 18. To see other lessons, please click here.

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