Minna no Nihongo lesson 16 – All vocabulary and grammar with explanation

Minna no Nihongo Lesson 16 will introduce you to 45 new words and 7 new grammar structures of Japanese

Vocabulary and grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 16

  • Part 1: Vocabulary
  • Part 2: Grammar

Part 1: Vocabulary

Listed below are 45 new words that appear in lesson 16. Let’s review these words before learning grammar.

Vocabulary Kanji     Meaning
のります 乗ります     Get on
おります 降ります     Get off
のりかえます 乗り換えます     Change
あびます 浴びます     Take ( a shower )
いれます 入れます     Insert, put in
だします 出します     Take out, withdraw
はいります 入ります     Enter [University]
でます 出ます     Graduate
やめます     Give up, Quit
おします 押します     Push, press
わかい 若い     Young
ながい 長い     Long
みじかい 短い     Short
あかるい 明るい     Bright, light
くらい 暗い     Dark
せがたかい 背が高い     Tall
あたまがいい 頭がいい     Smart, clever
からだ     Body
あたま     Head
かみ     Hair
かお     Face
    Eye
みみ     Ear
くち     Mouth
     Tooth
おなか お腹     Stomach
あし     Foot, leg
サービス     Service
ジョギング     Jogging
シャワー     Shower
みどり     Green
おてら お寺     Buddhist shrine
じんじゃ 神社     Shinto shrine
りゅうがくせい 留学生     Foreign student
いちばん 一番     Number one
どうやって     How, in what way
どの~     Which~(used for three or more)
おひきだしですか お引き出しですか     Are you making a withdrawal?
まず     First of all
キャッシュカード     Cash dispensing card
あんしょうばんごう 暗証番号     personal identification number, PIN
つぎに     Next
きんがく 金閣      amount of money
かくにん 確認     Confirmation
ボタン     Button

Part 2: Grammar

1.V て-form

To connect verb sentences, the て-form is used. When two or more actions take place in succession, the actions are mentioned in the order of occurrence by using the て-form. The tense of sentence is determined by the tense form of the last verb in the sentence.

朝ジョギングをしてシャワーを浴びて、会社へ行きます。

In the morning, I jog, take a shower and go to the office.

神戸へいって映画を見て、お茶を飲みました。

I went to Kobe, saw a movie and drank tea.

2.い-adj =>くて、

When joining an い-adjective sentence to another sentence, take away the い from the い-adjective and attach くて。

おおき-い => おおきくて

ちいさ-い => ちいさくて

い-い => よくて

ミラーさんは若くて元気です。

Mr Miller is young and lively.

きのうは天気がよくて、暑かったです。

Yesterday it was fine and hot.

3.N・なadj + で,~

When joining noun sentences or な-adjective sentences, です is changed to で.

カリナさんはインドネシア人で京都大学の留学生です。

Ms Karina is an Indonesian and a student of Kyoto University.

ミラーさんはハンサムで親切です。

Mr Miller is handsome and kind.

奈良は静かで、きれいな街です。

Nara is a quiet and beautiful city.

[Note 1] The above structures can be used not only for connecting sentences relating to the same topic but also sentences with different topics.

カリナさんは学生で、マリアさんは主婦です。

Ms Karina is a student and Maria is a housewife.

[Note 2] This method cannot connect sentences of contradictory notion. In that case が is used .

X : この部屋は狭くて、きれいです。

O :この部屋は狭いですが、きれいです。This room is small but clean.

4. V1 て-form から V2.

This sentence pattern indicates that upon completion of the action denoted by V1 the action of V2 os to be conducted. The tense of the sentence is determined bu the tense form of the last verb in the sentence.

国へ帰ってから父の会社で働きます。

I will work for my father’s company after going back to my country.

コンサートが終わってから、レストランで食事します。

We ate at a restaurant after the concert was over.

[Note] The subject of a subordinate clause is indicated by が, as shown in the example sentence.

5. N1はN2が adjective

This sentence pattern is used to describe an attribute of a thing or a person. The topic of the sentence is denoted by は, N1 is the topic of the sentence. N2 is the subject of the adjective’s description.

大阪は食べ物がおいしいです。

Food is tasty in Osaka.

ドイツのフランケンはワインが有名です

Franken in Germany produces famous wine.

マリアさんは髪が長いです。

Maria has long hair.

6. どうやって

どうやってis used to ask the way or the method of doing something. To answer such a question, the pattern learned in 1. is used.

大学までどうやって行きますか。

京都駅から16番のバスに乗って、大学前で降ります。

How do you go to your university?

…I take a No.16 bus from Kyoto Station and get off at the front of the university.

7. どのN

You learned in lesson 2 that この、その and あの modify nouns. The interrogative word used in this system is どの。どの is used to ask the listener to define one among more than two which are concretely presented.

サントスさんはどの人ですか。

…あの背が高くて、髪が黒いです。

Which one is Mr. Santos?

…That tall man with black hair.

The above is all knowledge about Vocabulary and Grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 16. To see other lessons, please click here.

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