Minna no Nihongo lesson 14 – All vocabulary and grammar with explanation

Minna no Nihongo Lesson 14 will introduce you to 31 new words and 8 new grammar structures of Japanese

Vocabulary and grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 14

Part 1: Vocabulary

Part 2: Grammar

Part 1: Vocabulary

Listed below are 31 new words that appear in lesson 14. Let’s review these words before learning grammar.

WORD KANJI     MEANING
つけます 付けます     Turn on
けします 消します     Turn off
あけます 開けます     Open
しめます 閉めます      Close, shut
いそぎます 急ぎます     Hurry
まちます 待ちます     Wait
とめます 止めます     Stop, park
まがります 曲がります     Turn
もちます 持ちます     Hold
とります 取ります     Take, pass
てつだいます 手伝います     Help
よびます 呼びます     Call
はなします 話します     Speak, talk
みせます 見せます     Show
おしえます 教えます     Tell
はじめます 始めます     Start, begin
ふります 降ります     Rain
コピーします     Copy
エアコン      Air conditioner
パスポート     Passport
なまえ 名前    Name
じゅうしょ 住所    Address
ちず 地図     Map
しお     Salt
さとう 砂糖     Sugar
よみかた 読み方     How to read, way of reading
ゆっくり     Slowly, leisurely
すぐ     Immediately
また     Again
あとで 後で     Later
もうすこし もう少し     ~more, another~

Part 2: Grammar

  1. Verb conjugation

Verbs in Japanese change their forms, i.e., they conjugate, and they are divided into three groups according to the type of conjugation. Depending on the following phrases, you can make sentences with various meanings.

2. Verb groups

1) Group I verbs

In the verbs  of this group, the last sound of the ます – form is that of the い-line.

かきます write のみます drink.

2) Group II verbs

In most of the verbs of this group , last sound of the ます-form is that of the え- line, but in some verbs the last sound of the ます-form is that of the い-line.

たべます eat みせます  show みます  see

3)Group III verbs

Verbs of this group include します and “noun denoting an action + します” as well as きます。

3. Verb て – form

The verb form which ends with て or で is called the て- form. How to make the て-form of  a verb depends on which group the verb belongs to as explained below.

1)Group I Depending on the last sound of the ます-form, the て- form of the verbs of this group is made as shown in the form table. Note that the て- form of the verb いきます、いって , is an exception.

2)Group II Attach て to the ます-form.

3)Group III Attach て to the ます-form.

4. Vて-form ください

Please do…

 

This sentence pattern is used to ask, instruct or encourage the listener to do something. Naturally if the listener is one’s superior, this expression cannot be used for giving instructions to him/her. The sentences shown below are examples of asking, instructing and encouraging, respectively.

すみませんが、この漢字の読み方を教えてください。

Excuse me, could you tell me how to read this kanji, please.?

ここに住所と名前を書いてください

Please write you name and address here.

ぜひ遊びに来てください。

Please come to my place.

When it is used to ask the listener to do something, すみませんが is often added before V て-form ください. This expression is pliter than only saying Vて-form ください.

5. Vて-form います

Be V-ing

This sentence pattern indicates that a certain action or motion us in progress.

ミラーさんは今電話をかけています。

Mr Miller is making a phone call now.

今雨が降っていますか?                       Is it raining now

。。。はい、降っています。            …Yes, it is.

。。。いいえ、降っていません。   …No, it is not.

6. Vます-form ましょか

– Shall I…?

 

This expression is used when the speaker is offering to do something for the listener.

A.あしたも来ましょうか                  Shall I come tomorrow, too?

B.ええ10時にきてください。     ….Yes, please come at ten.

A.傘を貸しましょうか                      Shall I lend you an umbrella?

B.すみません。お願いします。      …Yes, please.

A.荷物を持ちましょうか                 Shall I carry your parcel?

B.いいえ、けっこうです。              …No, thank you.

In the above example conversations, B demontratres how to politely ask or instruct someone to do something, to accept an offer with gratitude and to decline an offer poitlely.

7. S1がS2

…But…

 

失礼ですが、お名前は?

Excuse me, but may I have your name?

すみませんが塩を取ってください。

Please pass me the salt.

You learned the conjunctive particle が in lesson 8. In expressions such as しつれいですが orすみませんが , which are used as introductory remarks when speaking to someone, が , losing its original meaning, is used to connect two sentences lightly.

8. NがV

 

When describing a natural phenomenon, the subject is indicated by が.

雨が降っていますか.

It is raining.

The above is all knowledge about Vocabulary and Grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 14. To see other lessons, please click here.

 

 

 

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