Minna no Nihongo lesson 12 – All vocabulary and grammar with explanation

Minna no Nihongo Lesson 12 will introduce you to 47 new words and 5 new grammar structures of Japanese

Vocabulary and grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 12

  • Part 1: Vocabulary
  • Part 2: Grammar

Part 1: Vocabulary

Listed below are 47 new words that appear in lesson 12. Let’s review these words before learning grammar.

かんたん 簡単 Simple
ちかい 近い Near
とおい 遠い Far
はやい 早い Quick, early
おそい 遅い Slow, late
おおい 多い Many( people)
すくない 少ない Few ( people)
あたたかい 暖かい Warm
すずしい 涼しい Cool
あまい 甘い Sweet
からい 辛い Spicy
おもい 重い Heavy
かるい 軽い Light
いい Prefer
きせつ 季節 Season
はる Spring
なつ Summer
あき Autumn
ふゆ Winter
てんき 天気 Weather
あめ Rain
ゆき Snow
くもり Cloudy
ホテル Hotel
くうこう 空港 Airport
うみ Sea
せかい 世界 World
パーテイー Party
まつり 祭り Festival
しけん 試験 Examination
すきやき Sukiyaki
さしみ Sashimi
すし sushi
てんぷら 天ぷら Tempura
いけばな 生け花 Flower arrangement
もみじ Red leaves
どちら Which one ( between two things)
どちらも Both
ずっと By far
はじめて For the first time


Part 2: Grammar

  1. Past tense of noun sentences and な- adjective sentences.

    Affirmative: N/Na adj + です - N/Na adj + でした。Negative: N/Na adj + じゃ(では)ありません。 – N/Na adj + じゃ(では)ありませんでした.

きのうは雨でした。 It was rainy yesterday

きのうの試験は簡単じゃありませんでした。Yesterday’s exam was not easy.

2.Past tense of い adjective sentences
Affirmative: あついです。 - あつかったです
Negative: あつくないです - あつくなかったです

きのうは暑かったです。 It was hot yesterday
きのうのパーティーはあまり楽しくなかったです。 I didn’t enjoy yesterday’s party very much

3.N1 は N2 よりadjectiveです.

This sentence pattern describes the quality and/ or state of N1 in comparison with N2.


This car is bigger than that car.

4.N1 とN2とどちらがAdjectiveですか

…N1/N2 のほうがAdjectiveです.

The question asks the listener to choose between two items ( N1 and N2). The interrogative used is always どちらif the comparison is made between two items.



Which is more interesting, baseball or football?

Football is.


Who is a better tennis player, Mr. Miller or Mr. Santos?

5. N1の中で何・どこ・だれ・いつ・がいちばんadjectiveですか


This question pattern is used to ask the listener to choose something that is the most “adjective”. The choice is made form the group or category denoted by N1. The interrogative used is decided by the kind of category from which the choice is made.



Among Japanese dishes, what is the most delicious?

Tempura is



When is the coldest time of the year?

It’s coldest in February.

[Note] When the subject is an interrogative, the particle が is used.

When the subject of an adjective sentence is questioned, が is attached to the interrogative in the same way.

The above is all knowledge about Vocabulary and Grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 12. To see other lessons, please click here.

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