Minna no Nihongo lesson 10 – All vocabulary and grammar with explanation

Minna no Nihongo Lesson 10 will introduce you to 49 new words and 7 new grammar structures of Japanese

Vocabulary and grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 10

  • Part 1: Vocabulary
  • Part 2: Grammar

Part 1: Vocabulary

Listed below are 49 new words that appear in lesson 10. Let’s review these words before learning grammar.

1 います exist, be ( referring to animate things )
2 あります exist, be ( referring to inanimate things )
3 いろいろ「な」 various
4 おとこのひと 男の人 Man
5 おんなのひと 女の人 Woman
6 おとこのこ 男の子 Boy
7 おんなのこ 女の子 Girl
8 いぬ Dog
9 ねこ  Cat
10 Tree
11 もの Thing
12 フイルム Film
13 でんち 電池 Battery
14 はこ Box
15 スイッチ Switch
16 れいぞうこ 冷蔵庫 Refrigerator
17 テーブル Table
18 ベッド Bed
19 たな Shelf
20 ドア Door
21 まど Window
22 ポスト Mailbox, postbox
23 ビル Building
24 こうえん 公園 Park
25 きっさてん 喫茶店 Coffee shop
26 ほんや 本屋 Bookstore
27 ~や  ~屋 ~Store
28 のりば 乗り場 A Fixed place to catch taxis, trains.etc
29 けん Prefecture
30 うえ On, above, over
31 した Under, Below, Beneath
32 まえ Front, Before
33 うしろ Back, behind
34 みぎ Right[ side ]
35 ひだり Left [ side ]
36 なか In, inside
37 そと Outside
38 となり Next, next door
39 ちかく 近く Near, vicinity
40 あいだ Between, among
41 ~や~「など」 ~,~ and so on
42 いちばん~ the most ~ ( いちばん うえ: the top )
43 ーだんめ ー段目 The -th shelf (だん is the counter for shelves)
44 「どうも」すみません。 Thank you
45 チリソース Chilli sauce
46 The back
47 スパイス コーナー Spice corner
48 東京ディズニーランド Tokyo Disneyland
49 ユニューや ストア Fictitious supermarket

Part 2: Grammar

   1. N があります/ いま

This sentence pattern is used to indicate the existence or presence of a thing(s) or person(s). The thing(s) or person(s) in such a sentence is treated as the subject and marked with the particle が.

  • ありますis used when what is present is inanimate or does not move by itself. Things, plants and places belong in this category.

コンピューターがあります。                 There is a computer.

桜があります。                                        There are cherry trees.

公園があります。                                    There is a park.

  • When what is present is animate and moves by itself, います is used. People and animals belong in this category.

男の人がいます。                                    There is a man.

犬がいます。                                           There is a dog.

    2. N1 (place)に  N2   が あります/ います

  • The place where N2  is present is indicated by the particle に.

わたしの部屋に机があります。                There is a desk in my room.

事務所にミラーさんがいます。                 Mr.Miller is in the office.

  • You can ask what or who is present at/in the place by using this pattern. The interrogative なに is used things for things and だれ is used for persons.

地下に何がありますか。                            What is there in the basement?

…レストランがあります。                        …There are restaurants.

受付にだれがあります。                            Who is at the reception desk?

…木村さんがいます。                                … Ms.Kimura is there.

    3. N1 は N2 (place) に  あります/ います

  • In this sentence pattern, the speaker picks up N1 as the topic, and explains where it is, The topic should be something or someone that both the speaker and the listener know about, The particle attached to  N1 is not が, which remarks the subject, but は, which marks the topic.

東京ディズニーランドは千葉県にあります。 Tokyo Disneyland is in Chiba Prefecture.

みらーさんは事務所にいます。    Mr.Miller is in the office.

  • When you ask where N1  is, this sentence pattern is used.


… 千葉県に あります。

Where is Tokyo Disneyland?

…It’s in Chiba Prefecture.

ミラーさんはどこにいますか。                          Where is Mr.Miller?

…事務所にいます。                                              …He’s in the office.

[Note] です is sometimes used to replace a verb predicate when the predicate is obvious. The sentence N1 は N2 (place) に あります can be replaced by the sentence N1 は N2   (place) です, which you learned in Lesson 3.


… 千葉県です。

Where is Tokyo Disneyland?

…It’s in Chiba Prefecture.

    4. N1 (thing/person/place) の N2 (position)

うえ, した, まえ, うしろ, みぎ, ひだり, なか, そと, となり, ちかく and あいだ are nouns denoting position.

机の上に写真があります。                                         There is a picture on the desk.

郵便局は銀行の隣 (となり) にあります。                 The post office is next to the bank.

[Note] As these are place nouns, not only に but also particles likeで can come after them.

駅の近くで友達に会いました。                                   I met a friend near the station.

   5. N1 や N2

Nouns are concerned in coordinate relation by the particle や. While と enumerates all the items, や shows a few representative items. Sometimes など is put after the last noun to explicitly express that there are also some other things of the kind.

箱 (はこ) の中に手紙 (てがみ)や写真 (しゃしん)があります。      There are letters, pictures and so on in the box.

箱 (はこ) の中に手紙 (てがみ)や写真 (しゃしん)などがあります。 There are letters, pictures and so on in the box.

   6. Word (s) ですか

The particle か  has the function to confirm. The speaker picks up a word or words he/she wants to confirm and confirms it (them) using this pattern.


…ユニューヤ・ストアですか。あのビルの なかです。

Excuse me, bt where is Yunyu-ya Store?

…Yunya-yu Store? It’s in that building.

   7. チリソースはありませんか

The expression チリソースはありませんか is found in the conversation of this lesson. By using the negative form ありませんか instead of ありますか, you can be indirect and polite, showing that you are prepared for a negative answer.


The above is all knowledge about Vocabulary and Grammar of Minna no Nihongo lesson 10. To see other lessons, please click here.





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